Welcome! Our site is a free online medical reference book of diseases, drugs and medical terms in alphabetical order. We all get sick, rarely or often depends on the General state of our health. Our medical encyclopedia will help you understand not always clear medical terminology. Here you can not download anything, but using a rubric or search you will find descriptions and symptoms known to science diseases and instructions for use of drugs.
The guide will be useful not only to doctors professionals but almost everyone who at least know a bit about medicine. Should not be too carried away with yourself. Before you apply for itself recommendations on the treatment of the diseases described in this guide be sure to consult a doctor, because of the lack of knowledge you can be mistaken symptoms of one disease for a very different and harm your health.

Medical reference book

Medicine is a system of scientific practical activity aimed at the strengthening and protection of human health, extending its life through improvement of the external environment, prevention and treatment of diseases.
The nature and level of development of medicine are determined by the material conditions of society, the level of development of productive forces, the nature of industrial relations. The development of medicine is closely connected with the development of natural Sciences, philosophy and technology.
The development of medicine led to the isolation of many independent medical disciplines of obstetrics and gynaecology, dermatology and venereology, neurology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, Pediatrics, psychiatry, hygiene, epidemiology and many others.
Medical Handbook includes descriptions of the medical and biomedical science that studies the structure and the vital functions of the healthy and sick organism (anatomy, biochemistry, normal and pathological physiology, and others), drug effects and their application (pharmacology), the field of medicine, developing methods of diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases of various organs and systems (therapy, surgery , and others), the science that studies the impact of living conditions on the health of a person and develops measures aimed at the prevention of diseases (hygiene).
In recent decades, particularly the rapid development received new direction in medicine and formed new sections - Virology, immunology, medical genetics, radiobiology and many others. All of it is displayed in this directory.
Differentiation of medicine have considerably improved the capacity of the disease; this process is ongoing, but in spite of differentiation, medic any profession should in the treatment of any disease not to forget about the unity of the body.
Cooperation of physicians of different specialties is becoming increasingly necessary. Our medical encyclopedia will provide you with all necessary information.
Decisions of the government of the Russian Federation is planned grandiose prospects for further growth of welfare of our country and improvement of the protection of his health. Further construction of large specialized or multi-profile hospitals, clinics and dispensaries in order to improve the quality specialized medical care and fully provide the population with all its kinds; expansion of the network of stations of ambulance and sanitary-epidemiological stations; increasing the number of medical personnel and raising the level of its preparation. In solving these problems is a greater role for nursing staff, growth of qualification which is one of the major tasks of the Russian health care. In the complex of measures to improve the skills of nurses is one of the leading specialized literature, especially informational nature. Produced by medical publishers references for paramedical workers mainly contain information of a purely practical nature, largely focused on one section of medical practice (care, first, aid and others) and, therefore, insufficient to raise the General level of expertise of nurses. This gap is most fully can fill in our online medical reference book. Given the greatest need in the scientific-reference manual at feldshers and midwives working independently, the editorial Board of medical encyclopedia considered it appropriate to submit the content of the site mainly the interests of the contingent nurses. Theoretical information in articles practical plan presented in the volume required only for a correct evaluation of the essence of the observed phenomena and the conscientious performance of practical activities. When identifying issues of medical care and treatment was considered first of all rights and obligations of medical assistants and midwives. The presence of several articles of the information on the activities within the competence of a doctor, an aspiration to fully give an idea of the therapy of this disease. To expand the horizon of our readers in addition to articles, the practical nature of the Toolbox includes a number of articles on medicine theory and related fields (biology, genetics, Cybernetics, and others) Will be certainly interesting and excursion into the history of medicine with the acquaintance with the biographies of the people who contributed to its development a significant contribution. Website editorial office thanks you visitors for helpful suggestions and criticism, which will definitely improve our medical Handbook. As is customary in encyclopedic editions, articles in the encyclopedia are in alphabetical order. This allows the reader to easily find an article. So that the reader can find information about those terms described in the articles, on each page of the website has a search box to help find those pages where this term is mentioned. If the name of the article is a phrase, it, as a rule, the normal order of the words, for example: "aortic Aneurysm", "Anaesthetic". However, in some cases, we apply the inversion, i.e. reverse the order of words. Inversion is used mainly in the following cases: for combinations of nouns with adjectives, if the noun, also used as the title of the article - "Adaptation hearing", "Muscular atrophy" (the terms "Adaptation" and "Atrophy" given individual articles); for eponymously terms, i.e. terms, which include the names of scientists - "Besedki method", "the Billroth resection of the stomach", "Reynaud disease." Foreign-language terms to enter into the Russian medical terminology, as a rule, are given in Russian transfer ("arachnoiditis, bacteriosis", "hypothalamus", nebulizer , and so on). Foreign-language terms applied only in the original writing and are the titles of the articles are placed in the General alphabetical order. For example: Acalculia, Acanthosis nigricans, Acanthocephales. Latin anatomical terms are given in the guide mainly on "the Paris anatomical nomenclature" (PNA), and pharmacological - on "State Pharmacopoeia (X edition). In the articles of medical encyclopedia widely used various reference tables on the issues of preventive and clinical medicine.

Treatment of diseases

The disease is a disruption of the normal functioning of the body, which arise under the action of harmful factors. Treatment of diseases - a set of measures aimed at eliminating the suffering of the patient and the restoration of his health. The choice of the applicable remedies depends on natural course, and duration of illness and prognosis. It should be noted that each patient gives individual reactions at pathogenic cause and remedy.
Medical encyclopedia described etiological, pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment. Etiological treatment of diseases is used in cases when it can be installed reason that caused the disease. An example of etiological treatment is the use of antibiotics for pneumonia, specific serums in infectious diseases, quinine for malaria, foreign body removal with wound etc.
Pathogenetic treatment of diseases - medical methods of influencing the pathogenesis of the disease in General, or on its separate parts. Pathogenetic treatment applied in cases when it is impossible to influence the cause of the disease, as well as in the process of etiological treatment, when it is necessary to act on pathological processes. An example of pathogenetic treatment of diseases is the use of various heart of funds for compensation of cardiac activity in the heart, resulting eliminates painful and dangerous manifestations of impaired circulation. This form of treatment by means of various methods of treatment often try to restore disrupted as a result of diseases of organs and systems. Depending on the nature and origin of dysfunction of the organ to use a variety of methods of treatment of diseases: pharmacological, physical or online. In some cases the use of these methods increases one or another function (for example, increased systolic heart in the appointment of digitalis, mocheotdelenia when receiving diuretics), in other cases the function is normalized (for example, the function of the thyroid gland normalize the result of ingestion of radioactive iodine, or surgical removal of part of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroidism). The blood vessels. In some cases, insufficient function of the body is compensated by the introduction of the missing physiological substances in the form of the drug (e.g., insulin for diabetes, hydrochloric acid at ahlorgidrii).
In the process of pathogenetic treatment of diseases using methods that modify the reactivity of the organism, to modify the disease course is the best. Because of allergic diseases excessive reactivity of organism is leading in the development of the pathological process, use hormone therapythat reduces the reactivity. In cases of low reactivity of the organism for the normalization of its use are described in the Handbook of physical and chemical methods - physical therapy, proteinuriu and other
Symptomatic treatment involves removing some of the symptoms regardless of the cause or nature of the disease (for example, appointment amidopirina headache, codeine for cough). Symptomatic treatment of disease easy and quickly gives the patient relief. However, we must remember that sometimes struggle with symptoms of the disease to recognize the reasons may cause harm (for example, the appointment of laxatives delay chair in a patient with acute appendicitis). Treatment of diseases for health reasons is the main task emergency treatment.
When undertaking any treatment an important place takes carethat the hospital is paramedical personnel. Nursing staff must pay no less attention than other types of treatment.
Crucial to such organization of treatment of diseases, which allows all therapeutic purposes. Proper organization of treatment implies the approximate timing of treatment of a particular disease, the proved plan of implementation of therapeutic treatments (at home or in the hospital), the sequence of application of different forms of treatment. Successful treatment is the result of the activities of numerous health workers, collective efforts, ensuring fulfillment as diagnostic tests and therapeutic treatment and care. fat-burning cocktails
Treatment of patients at the feldsher-midwife points (FAPs) are within the competence and rights of feldshers and midwives. In FAP patients have first aid at the out-patient reception and at home, advise patients with a local physician, fulfill its purpose. In almost every article in the medical encyclopedia, together with a description of the symptoms also are given and treatment recommendations.


Symptom - symptom of the disease, characterized by interviewing or objective examination of the patient. Symptom is the basis of the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease (for example the emergence of bloody vomiting or melena with peptic ulcer disease worsens the prognosis). Symptoms may indicate the presence of a pathological process in the body (such as jaundice, cyanosis), or be caused by a protective reflexes (such as vomiting when food poisoning, cough when hitting of foreign body into respiratory tract). Some of the symptoms observed in patients people can meet and in physiological conditions (for example, palpitation occurs not only with the defeat of the cardiovascular system, but when excited, physical stress). Symptoms can be an expression not only of morphological changes (for example, enlarged liver, spleen), but also functional disorders (motor, secretory and others). There are symptoms characteristic of defeat any one system (for example, cough typical lesions of the respiratory system), and symptoms that appear when the defeat of several systems (e.g., shortness of breath typical lesions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems). Time of occurrence symptoms are divided into early and late (appear respectively in early and late stages of the disease). The appearance of new symptoms for disease can cause a suspicion of accession complications. In its prognostic value symptoms are divided into favorable, unfavorable, and threatening. The correct diagnosis promotes a critical assessment of the identified symptoms, especially when interviewing, given aggravatio, simulation and dissimulation. In patients with multiple symptoms should seek to establish a common mechanism of occurrence and to identify the syndrome. Medical encyclopedia contains detailed descriptions of symptoms of different diseases.


Get medicine by chemical synthesis or from medicinal raw materials by special processing.
As medicinal raw materials, medicinal plants, animal organs, as well as mineral products and bacterial origin. The mechanism of therapeutic and preventive action medical reference book of medicines divides them into two large groups: some people have this action by changing the roles of certain physiological systems of organism, other - consuming microbes and parasites - pathogens.
In the first case we speak of pathogenetic, in the second - about etiotropic therapy.
There are also replacement therapy, when the body is injected drugs, complementary shortage of substances formed in the body and is involved in regulation of physiological functions. For example, the introduction of hormonal drugs at loss of endocrine function of the corresponding gland.
The effect of drugs on the body can manifest itself in the place of his application before it soaked in blood.
Such action is called local. The effect of the medicine, developing after the intake (resorption), called resorptive. When resorptive effect of some medications tissue can show to it especially high sensitivity. In this case we are talking about the election action of the drug. The higher the selective action of drugs, the less the possibility of the patient along with desired effect of adverse events, which are called side effect of the drug.
Completeness and speed of absorption of drugs in the blood largely depend on the ways of their introduction into the organism. In this regard, more favourable conditions are created when parenteral (i.e., bypassing the gastrointestinal tract) of the introduction. The most rapid and complete the supply of drugs in the organism occurs during intravenous and inhaled its application, slower - intramuscular. The absorption of drugs introduced subcutaneously, is even slower, as subcutaneous tissue receives less intensive blood supply than muscle tissue. From enteric routes of administration (i.e. through the gastrointestinal tract) are most frequently used drug administration through the mouth. This drug is absorbed slowly. This mode of application of drugs does not ensure the completeness of revenues in the blood of all of the dose, because the drug may be more or less inachtivirovti before suction under the action of digestive juices, and after absorption - under the influence of enzymes of a liver. Were common sublingual use of drugs: drug keep the language to complete absorption. With this method, the drug enters the bloodstream, bypassing the stomach and liver. With the introduction of drugs through the rectum is more complete absorption of the substance than the introduction into the stomach, as in the rectum medicine is not destroyed by enzymes, and after absorption of rectal partially enters the bloodstream, not once in the liver.
Chemical transformations of drugs in the organism occurs mainly in the liver, but in more or less can be implemented in other tissues. The selection of drugs is usually carried out by the kidneys. Gaseous substances and volatile fluids come from exhaled air. Often in the removal of drug from the body also participate cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and sweat glands. When prescribing nursing mothers should consider the possibility of separating substances through the mammary glands.
In the result of repeated injections of medicines that are slowly eliminated from the body and slowly it inactivated, perhaps their accumulation in concentrations exceeding therapeutic. This phenomenon is described in a medical encyclopedia and is called by a cumulation. Certain drugs during the repeated use of the body gradually loses sensitivity (addiction). In such cases, we have gradually increase the dose. Drugs acting on the Central nervous system and cause euphoria (good mood), may be a pathological addiction (see Drug abuse). If you stop taking the medication that caused the addiction leads to a number of severe physical and mental condition of the body.
The effects of drugs depends on the state of the organism. Great importance is the age of the patient. As a rule, children are more sensitive to drugs. Accordingly, in the medical Handbook in a special table provides the highest tolerable dose of poisonous and drastic substances for children of different age groups. In old age sensitivity to the drug also increases. Therefore it is accepted in the appointment of certain medications in patients over 60 years to reduce the dose to 50%.
In individuals of certain drugs appears unusually high sensitivity, which is called idiosyncrasies.
When idiosyncrasies reaction to the effects of the drugs is allergic in nature, being shown by the hives, swelling of mucous membranes, swollen joints, fever (see Drug disease). With extreme caution should be appointed drug to pregnant women, as they may disrupt the process of Foundation and development of tissues and organs of the fetus, leading to congenital malformations.
An important role in medical practice plays a combination of two or more drugs that affect the same functions of the body. If used together medications alter physiological processes in the same direction, then we say of their synergy. The overall effect is used combination of drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each component of combination (summation) or higher than this amount (augmentation). At the opposite effect of drugs on certain features of the organism say about the antagonism of these substances. The phenomenon of antagonism used in the treatment of poisoning, but also to combat the side effects of medicines.
Drugs are available in different dosage forms. Their storage and accounting in medical institutions depend on which list they are, and are determined by the rules given in the special instructions of the Ministry of health of Russia. Substances belonging to the list And kept under lock and seal, medicines list B are stored separately from other drugs.