Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

In 1863, the Professor of the Medical surgical Academy I. M. Sechenov were sent to the magazine "Sovremennik" article "Attempt to enter the physiological basis in mental processes". This article is considered censorship as "serious, scientific, materialistic Treaty"was recognized as "harmful". "In a calm and restrained manner, " wrote critic, author, although not explicitly concerns the religious beliefs and moral or political started, but nevertheless undermines them, carrying out the most extensive way, the idea of materialism in all acts of human life". Censorship prevented the printing of the article in the "Sovremennik", allowing printing only "in any medical or other scientific publication, in which it, losing the nature of propaganda, would be an expression of only one of the various views of modern science", and demanded at the same time, "that changed was the title of the article, too clearly indicate the end, the conclusions based". The article received a new name: "the Reflexes of the brain". "Reflexes", released later and a separate edition, played a significant role in the spread of materialism in Russia.
Almost 40 years after the publication of the article I. M. Sechenov another Professor of the same Academy - I. P. Pavlov - started the accumulation of facts, which gave him a base to create a theory which States that "mental activity is the result of physiological activity of a certain mass of the brain", and strengthening the position of materialism. It should be noted that the very I. P. Pavlov emphasized that the main impetus to its work in this direction was the "long-standing, even in his youth tested, the impact of talented brochures Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, under the title "the Reflexes of the brain".
It is because of the ingenious thoughts I. M. Sechenov directly touching the "mental" human activities, they, according to the censorship Committee, led "to a denial of the moral foundations of the society, to the shock of the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and at all religious started". Statements I. P. Pavlov in the pre-revolutionary period was only on the behavior of the dog, so it does not suffer the fate Sechenov, and he had the opportunity to successfully develop their teaching and to develop their views. The author of the Reflexes of the brain", best scientist of world renown, "father of Russian physiology I. M. Sechenov "not allowed" in the Imperial Academy of Sciences, as well as was not allowed there, and other advanced, well-known far outside Russia, scientists, outstanding chemist D. I. Mendeleev and botanist K. A. Timiryazev. I. P. Pavlov was a "happier". In 1901 he was elected a correspondent member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1907 - the academician. Together with the last election he received in the management of the new laboratory. Every year increased number of studies on physiology of higher nervous activity, expanded the range of the studied issues.
However, staff at Pavlov was very little: in the pre-revolutionary years in each of the led them to laboratories, he had only two assistants. But in emergency workers from Ivan Petrovich shortage was a large number of doctors, mostly military, assigned to the Military medical Academy, sought to work in his laboratory.
Numerous facts obtained I. P. Pavlov and his staff in animal experiments, enriched physiological science and constituted a solid Foundation for practical, curative medicine. And then, in 1903, on the most useful for a human activities physiologists was entered sword. The Chairwoman of the "Russian Society of protection of animals" Baroness Meyendorff appealed to the military to the Minister a report on "re vivisection, as outrageous and useless abuse in the name of science" and demanded to limit the production of experiments to at least the minimum and be sure to put them under strict control of the members of the society for the protection of animals". Military Minister invited the conference (Council of professors) of the Military medical Academy to give regarding this report Baroness its conclusion. Selected conference, the Commission presented a detailed report, which gave a decisive rebuff claims "patrons of animals". In addition, I. P. Pavlov to the report made even his dissenting opinion". It says: "When I got practices related at the end of the death of an animal, I feel a heavy feeling of regret that interrupt triumphant life, what are the executioner of the living being. When I cut, break a living being, I can hear myself scathing rebuke that rude ignorant hand break unspeakable artistic mechanism. But it is in the interests of truth, for the benefit of the people. And me, my vivisectional activities offered to put under someone's permanent control. However, the destruction and, of course, the torment of animals just for the pleasure and satisfaction of set of empty desires remain without attention.

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