Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

During the study of normal physiological relations became clear that pass by pathological (painful) disorders of the higher nervous activity impossible. Often in the interests of physiological study of higher nervous activity had artificially induce in dogs pathological changes in the brain. Got up, of course, the question of why not to use it for in-depth consideration to those cases of painful events, which are represented by life itself, without our intervention? Such cases can be seen in the psychiatric hospitals, and to this end, Ivan Petrovich summer of 1918 starts to visit a psychiatric hospital on the Unit. Here, in the hospital, Pavlov met with a number of cases of mental illness (psychosis) and analyzed them in a number of reports, since 1919, from the point of view of its doctrine of higher nervous activity. Pavlovsky analysis gave an opportunity to understand much of what until then was unclear, and develop some therapeutic measures, successfully currently used in the treatment of mental illness.
In addition psychosis, Ivan Petrovich in the last years of his life was engaged in studying of neuroses - temporary disorders of the Central nervous system, which are often observed in dogs and could be caused them experimentally.
During many years of study of higher nervous activity in dogs in laboratories I. P. Pavlov observed that the processes of excitation and inhibition different dogs flow is different. Further analysis showed that all the dogs in the nature of their higher nervous activity are divided into four main groups: two groups - with unbalanced processes of excitation and inhibition: excitable and break animals, and two groups - with balanced processes: a very calm and very lively animals. Differences in character of course of the main nervous processes in these groups of animals Ivan Petrovich explained by differences type of the nervous system.
Can it be transferred to a person? asks Pavlov. Why not? "We have the right to transfer installed on the dog types of the nervous system (as they so accurately described) per person. Obviously, these types are what we call people temperaments. Temperament is the most General characteristics of each individual, the main characteristic of his nervous system, and the latter puts one or another seal on all activities of every individual".
First classification temperaments was given more than two thousand years ago by Hippocrates, qualifying the choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic temperament. I. P. Pavlov belongs to the great merit of deciding under Hippocratic systematization of the physiological Foundation and creation of the doctrine of the types of the nervous system.
The type of the nervous system (temperament) is of great importance for developing nature of disorders of the higher nervous activity for both animals and humans.
So, the study experimentally caused by nervousness dogs found that particularly easy they are called in animals unbalanced types of the nervous system. Depending on the type of the nervous system and therapeutic effects should be different. This observation Pavlova has been a valuable contribution to medicine.
In 1931 in Leningrad were organized especially two of the clinic: clinic for neuroses and psychiatric that under the personal tireless leadership of Ivan Petrovich was to study the various disorders of the higher nervous activity and produced new, physiologically based ways of alleviating human suffering. So at the end of her life again came Ivan Petrovich clinic, fixing the Union of pure science - physiology - practical - curative medicine.

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