Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

In 1878 the largest Russian physician, Professor S. P. Botkin, invited Pavlov, then a student of the fifth year, the head of laboratory in the academic clinic of internal diseases.
After graduation from the Academy in December 1879 Ivan Petrovich took part in the competition for the abandonment of the Academy for three years for improvements.
The conference of the Academy was counted worthy of abandonment 7 graduates of doctors, but as there were only two vacancies, Ivan Petrovich could be left at the Academy only after the liberation of vacancies in June 1880, until then, was assigned to the clinical military hospital of the Military medical Academy.
As for the work of Ivan Petrovich, essentially all remained still: he continued to head the same laboratory in the clinic S. P. Botkin. The main task of the laboratory was the experimental study of the effect of various medicinal substances on animal organism. Such study was very important because it helped the use of these substances in practical medical activity.
I. P. Pavlov understand the enormous value of physiology for practical medicine, but he also categorically demanded verification of theoretical data physiology practice. Even when physiology (by him) stepped far forward, he wrote: "Great help to the doctor-side physiology is possible only under a strict condition, with constant checking physiological data of clinical supervision".
In the clinic of Professor S. P. Botkin, in the period of stay shall I. P. Pavlov, was made many scientific papers, and Professor C. A. Manassein in 1890 officially stated (in the review of I. P. Pavlov), that he was "positively known that Pavlov was actually in charge of all the actual pharmacological and physiological works included in the dissertation, printed from the Botkin clinic".
In this laboratory in the clinic of I. P. Pavlov worked until 1890 (with a two-year break - 1884-1886,). Talking about this time, he wrote many years later: "Despite something unfavorable what was in this clinic, the main thing, of course, the shortage of funds, I think the time has been carried out here, very useful for my research of the future. First thing - full independence and then are given laboratory case (in the clinic I had no responsibilities). I worked there, not looking: what is my, what is alien. By months and years, all my laboratory work left to participate in the works of others. But always there was personal gain: I increasingly practiced in physiological thinking in a General sense and in a laboratory technique". "Lack of funds" laboratory, which remembers Ivan Petrovich, led to the fact that every animal to experience bought by the researcher, and such zealous and energetic worker, as I. P. Pavlov, "in monetary terms constantly had to tight. But, " he continued, " thanks to the friendly assistance in any forms and passion physiology, would not say that it is very clouded my life." One of the doctors who worked in the Botkin clinic, later a Professor of the same clinic, N. I am Chistovich recounted how the disciples of Ivan Petrovich, knowing about his difficult financial situation, decided to help him. They invited him to read a course of lectures and "bringing chipped money, gave it to him as if for the expenses for the course. And nothing came out: it is for the full amount bought animals for this course, and nothing left".
The administration of the doctors was seized from Ivan Petrovich lot of time, but, despite this, in the years spent in the Botkin clinic, he managed to complete several important independent research. In 1883 he defended the thesis on "Centrifugal nerves of the heart" and received the scientific degree of doctor of medicine. This work is a classic. It was first established that the activity of the heart is governed by two pairs of nerves, of which one pair regulates heart rate (accelerate and slow down the nerves), and the other, without affecting the frequency affects the force of the heart (strengthening and weakening nerves). In order to discover this fact was necessary shiny surgical technique: it was with live anesthetized dogs to search for and otraportovali subtle nervous branches and experimental evidence of their different physiological value.

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