Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Questions of physiology of the circulatory system, in the dissertation was devoted to a number of works of I. P. Pavlov. These works are the main content of the first period of scientific activity of the great scientist.
Having received in April 1884 the title of an associate Professor, Ivan Petrovich in June of the same year he was sent for two years in Germany. Presenting Pavlova as the candidate on a foreign trip, S. P. Botkin specially emphasized that all the works of I. P. Pavlov "originality as thoughts and methods; results are the same all over justice may become, along with the best discoveries of the last time in physiology". Abroad Ivan Petrovich worked in laboratories of well-known physiologists that time. On his return from a scientific mission in 1886 Ivan Petrovich began interrupted during works on physiology of digestion, the interest in these issues came to him as a student.
In April 1890 Pavlov was appointed Professor of pharmacology of Tomsk University and at the same time (a day later) was elected Professor of pharmacology of the Military medical Academy. From the trip to Tomsk Ivan Petrovich refused and stayed in the Academy. In 1895, after leaving the Academy Professor I. R. Tarkhanova, he was appointed Professor at the vacant chair of physiology.
After the opening of the Institute of experimental medicine Ivan Petrovich in 1891 was invited there for the management of the physiological Department. "Thus, - Pavlov wrote in his autobiography, he had been sufficient cash and ample opportunity to do in the lab, what we want. Before that - rule the need to pay for any experimental animal, with scarce cash resources in General, gave the same itself felt on the size of the laboratory activity." Since that time, both laboratories are widely developed works on physiology of digestion, which brought I. P. Pavlov worldwide fame.
On the question of how committed in animals digestion of food resources (digestion), scientists have wondered for a long time, but the explanations that were given to them, for the most part were not based on data, experience and was a result of various associations and speculative fantasies and valid picture of digestion for many centuries remained quite unclear.
Study of physiology of digestion in the stomach helped accident with one canadian hunter. In the thirties of the last century he was wounded by a bullet in the stomach, and he had a hole in the stomach, opened to the outside (gastric fistula). After the edge of the fistula is firmly rooted to the abdominal wall, had the opportunity to observe the patient over the course of the gastric digestion.
This is the case with artificial gastric fistula has prompted Moscow surgeon Professor C. A. Basova on the idea to make operational by gastric fistula in dogs to study the processes of digestion. This operation was a Century A. Basov implemented and described in 1842. With the operated similarly animals I. P. Pavlov met in a University laboratory his teacher Professor of the Imperial family of Zion. By showing these dogs students of the Imperial family Zion said, "You can ensure that these dogs are quite cheerful and playful, eat well and do not represent any apparent anomalies". Outside experience at these dogs opening of the fistula, which was usualas metal tube was closed with a cork, and, opening the past, you could get the gastric juice; this juice, however, was not clean, it was liberally mixed with food masses.

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