Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Much worse was the case with the study of other branches of digestive juices: of saliva and gastric juice. Salivary and pancreas are located outside of the digestive tract and produce their juices through narrow channels, apertures which are in the mucous membranes of the digestive canal. Saliva to get a simple and easy - she excels in the mouth - but how to monitor the progress of the Department of saliva in different conditions, with different food, how to get saliva, free of mucus and various impurities, which are inevitable during the collection of saliva? How to get pancreatic juice, if he stands out in the eyes cannot see part of the digestive canal? However, the latter at first seemed not difficult: to open the abdominal cavity, find gland and notched her excretory duct, insert a thin tubule and collecting juice. However, this method turned out to be absolutely useless, because the iron, as pointed out by I. P. Pavlov, "when those conditions, which occur during the operation (poisoning, opening cavity, and so on), experiencing such violations activities that in the vast majority of cases remains and traces rate" (i.e., violated the normal state.- Ed.).
It was suggested a number of ways, but they had reached the goal, in the best case, giving the opportunity to get the juice within just a few days after surgery, and then only in abnormal conditions. Knowing the whole history of previous attempts to study the digestive process, I. P. Pavlov has set itself the task of getting the digestive juice "at all times, otherwise would have us could escape important points in a completely pure form, otherwise we will not be able to know the change of the composition, it is necessary to define precisely its quantity and, finally, it is necessary that the alimentary canal is properly operated and the animal would be quite cool." Put I. P. Pavlov, the problem was resolved.
In 1879 Pavlov achieved what hard, but unsuccessfully sought his predecessors. He took out one of the pancreatic duct in dogs, cut out a piece of the intestine wall, where there is a hole in the duct, and wchiv him, opening outwards, into the abdominal wound. The colon, in which was cut a piece, carefully stitched. Normal digestion in dogs ensured pancreatic juice coming from cancer in the colon on the second pancreatic duct. Since the operation was carried out by all the rules of surgery, wound healing occurred well after a few days the animal was recovered, and by inserting at the time of the experience of a thin tube into the duct, you could spend hours watching the Department of pancreatic juice under different conditions. Operated so dogs live in the laboratory for many years.
This simple at the first sight, the operation has opened new avenues for research, and for several years the activity of a pancreas and properties detachable her juices were studied in detail Pavlov and his staff. It was found that pancreatic juice is not allocated continuously that the duration of the Department and the number of juice at various different kinds of food that juice digesting all kinds of food (protein, fat and carbohydrates), turning them into soluble condition, suitable for absorption in the intestines and for further use by the body, i.e. was mainly explained activity hidden from the eyes of the body, the pancreas and the resulting possibility, as indicated by I. P. Pavlov, "to a certain extent, to control the device, to rule over him."
These works was also installed the role of the nervous system in the activity of the pancreas, and Ivan Petrovich tried at that time to prove the role of the nervous system and in the activities of other digestive glands, particularly the stomach glands.

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