Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

I. P. Pavlov was a student at the Medico-surgical Academy, when physiologist richer published their experiments on the patient, which, due to the closing of the developmental esophagus, had to make gastric fistula to artificially feed it. When this patient was putting food in her mouth, she began to separate gastric juice, although the food in the stomach did not fall. This action can be explained only as a reflex when the irritation of nerve endings in the mouth. To prove the nervous mechanism of action of the food on gastric cancer, "remained wrote Pavlov, only to make the experience constant and simple, i.e., easily reproducible and excluding any side explanations". And here in 1889, the dog, who had a normal gastrointestinal fistula (fistula), Pavlov did a second operation - cut the esophagus from the neck and prinivil apart its ends in the corners of the wound. To feed this animal was, of course, only putting food directly fistula in the stomach, because the food that is eaten animals, fell out of the top section of the esophagus out. To "feed" such animal (Pavlov called it a "sham feeding") salootdelenie was not, but when "imaginary feeding" within a few minutes from the stomach began to flow of gastric juice, without any admixture of food masses. If such an animal is going to cut the nerves to the stomach, juice when "imaginary feeding" to separate won't be that undoubtedly proves the role of the nervous system in the mechanism of separation of gastric juice. Using an "imaginary feeding can get for a day at big dogs around litres of pure gastric juice. As a result, net of gastric juice I. P. pan-fishing is offered to apply in practice the treatment of gastric diseases.
But the described way of getting clean gastric juice have not permit the study of normal salootdelenie. "This requires, - specifies Pavlov, the observance of quite exceptional conditions: the existence of normal gastric food jam along with the exact picking up completely clean of juice".
on March 3, 1894, at the meeting of "the society of Russian physicians in St. Petersburg." I. P. Pavlov reported that it managed to develop a way of studying the Department of gastric juice without any disruption of normal digestion. The method consisted in the device out of the stomach of a separate bag - "little ventricular"expressing her formed in his glands gastric juice out. This "little ventricle was made so that all the nerves coming to him, were preserved.
"When food was part of the normal way in a large, remaining on the place of the stomach, " said Pavlov, from secluded piece of stomach began to flow completely pure juice, the number of which at any time can be accurately registered".
As "little ventricular" completely reproduces (reduced form) picture of normal gastric salootdelenie, "method of secluded ventricle should be considered as the only possible and absolutely correct in principle.
It is appropriate to remember that the German physiologist HEIDENHAIN made a similar operation, but in the formation of his "little ventricular" cut the nerves that sharply distinguishes his work from normal.
Developed by I. P. Pavlov method produced a revolution in the teaching of gastric digestion, giving the opportunity to hold a series of brilliant research about the progress of the Department of gastric juice, the role of juice in the digestion of food, etc.
In addition to the research activity of the stomach and pancreas, Ivan Petrovich with my staff examined empirically (by developing appropriate operational methods) the process of separation and digestive is bile produced in the liver and coming into the duodenum by bile duct; the progress of the Department of intestinal juice, produced by small glands located in the wall of the intestine; the progress of the Department of saliva, which is a product of the salivary glands; finally, he studied the progress of the movement of food through the digestive canal.

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