Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

There are phenomena so familiar that over their essence do not think. For example, who does not know that at the sight and smell of food "flow salivating", and many will think about what this means? Meanwhile, this fact is of great physiological interest, and an explanation of its true essence belongs to I. P. Pavlova.
Saliva, detachable salivary glands, is a digestive juice, first come into contact with food caught in the mouth of an animal.
To investigate the course of salivation in dogs I. P. Pavlov developed a special surgical technique overlay salivary fistula. Operation is not difficult.
Cut a piece of the mucous membrane with Windows that it bore duct, and the end of a duct is excreted through the slot in the wall of the mouth on the skin of the cheeks and here attached. Saliva after this operation flows not in her mouth, and outside. Glued to the skin of the cheeks in the place where offers salivary duct, glass funnel, you can monitor the Department of saliva and accurately measure the amount for any period of time. Method of receipt of such salivary fistula was developed in the laboratory of I. P. Pavlov in 1895. Bred out salivary gland duct allows for many years to observe salivation.
"When observing the normal activity of salivary glands, said Pavlov at the International medical Congress in Madrid in April 1903, it is impossible not to be impressed by the high adaptability of their work. You give the creature a dry, hard sorts of food - pouring a lot of saliva; rich in water food saliva much less. Obviously, for the chemical testing, comfortable rubbing food and education of her tight, to be swallowing, requires water, and salivary glands give her." "Clean river or sea sand, once in the mouth, " wrote Ivan Petrovich year later - causes salivation; it can be removed from there only picked up by the current fluid. Net flint pebbles are thrown out of his mouth without any salivation, to remove their liquid is not required, would be useless."
All the facts concerning branch of saliva indicate thin adapting the body and its organs. In the basis of this device lies reflex act, reflex, a natural response of a salivary glands on the irritation of sensitive nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Hence the nerves of irritation is transmitted to the Central nervous system, to the brain and from the brain nerves control of the activities of the salivary glands, secretory nerves is the impulse that causes the glands work. These are innate reflexes: they are in normal conditions are always, when at the end of the sensitive nerves in the mouth are relevant stimuli. These reflexes Pavlov called unconditional. But if it finds a clear physiological explanation, "when the normal animal enters the mouth meal or something from the reject substances, then outpouring of saliva, which moistens, dissolves and chemically alters food substances, and reject removes and washes them mouth", then how to explain that "the same secretory reaction are the same substances when they are in front of the dog away and can act on the dog only through the eyes and nose," that "the same reaction appears, and then when the dog is only tableware from which earlier hit these substances in her mouth," that "makes the same kind of person who usually brought these substances, even the sound of his steps from another room?"
To explain this so-called "psychic salivation" usually referred to "experience" the dog on a passionate desire it food on the anticipation of her pleasures with reminders about the proximity of the food and so on, in other words, explained the behavior of dogs from a subjective point of view. This view was traditional. It dominated not only among far from science people, but was captured and science, which, as pointed out Pavlov, "unknowingly, unconsciously, obeyed walking way to think of a similar activity animals in comparison with them, taking for their actions the same internal reasons that we feel and recognize in myself." Wanting to analyze "mental salivation" on, "I soon realized, writes Pavlov, " that if you stand on the mental point of view - to begin to guess that you can feel, think, and so on, a dog, or no use of it comes out, no accurate knowledge did not work". I had to turn away from such a psychological explanation of the phenomena and to find a way objective, truly scientific study of animal behavior, find the "key" to understanding the so-called "psychic" processes.

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