Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

This method was I. P. Pavlov was found, and the "key" was the salivary gland. It was in 1901.
We give the dog meat - Drools. It is unconditional reflex, the response of the salivary gland at the irritation of sensitive nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. This innate reflex, he observed in any normal dog. We show dog meat, and here are confronted with the most interesting fact: the dog that had received meat, saliva flows; the dog, specially grown for a meat-dairy diet, saliva is not flowing. If such a dog "who" with meat, she later with only one showing its "flow salivating". Department of saliva when the effects of smell and kind of food is not innate, but acquired reaction: it comes as a result of personal experience of each animal. It turned out that this not only applies to properties of the food substances, but also to any stimulus, signaling food. Let us imagine that we are on the dog any stimulus, not having any relation to the salivary gland (for example, include a call), and after some time, for example through 15-30 seconds, give the dog meat. After a few such combinations phone call activity and giving food, one inclusion of the call will be enough to cause salivation. And in that and in other case salivation represents a reaction to a stimulus, is a reflex, but the reflex is not inborn, and incurred during a private life of an animal because of a certain combination in time of action for animal species and smell of meat (or tone) and give meat in food. This new reflex appeared on the basis of inborn, unconditioned reflex as a response to the accompanying (appearance, odour) or signal (call) irritation. As well as the formation of this reflex is connected with certain conditions (for example, the coincidence in time of the external stimulus, and the act of eating), Pavlov called it conditional.
"The first and the main condition for the formation of this conditioned reflex, " said Pavlov, is the coincidence in time of the previously indifferent agent with the action unconditional agent that causes certain unconditional reflex. The second important condition is the following: the formation of the conditioned reflex indifferent agent should precede action unconditioned stimulus".
With Pavlov proposed methodology, both conditional and unconditional salivary reflex be accurately registered. This allows to speak about value reflex.
Conditional reflexes fragile. If the action signal stimulus not to support food, reflex, gradually decreasing in size, temporarily fade away, fade away, will slow down (terminology Pavlova). People standing on the subjective point of view and compare the behavior of the dog with her, believe that this fact is not surprising: "dog sees, understands that her cheating, and ceases to salivate". But if this were so, then restore extinct reflex could only food, showing the dog that we have ceased to "cheat". Actually extinct, retarded reflex restored everything that excites salivary gland, such as the implosion of the dog's mouth acid. After this infusion showing meat again causes salivation. Having received a portion acid, dog again believed in our "good intentions"?
Of course, the matter is not in it. The fact that the process of excitation sljunootdelitelnoe center in the brain in the absence of a "reinforcement" food is replaced by the braking process, and the new opening this centre in Giving food or infusion acid removes still braking, rastormazivatm it.

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