Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

The described phenomena: the development of conditioned reflexes and stopping the higher animals - take place only in the presence of higher Department of the brain - cortex. Remove the crust as material basis of conditioned reflexes, will lead to their disappearance, and the behavior of dogs is very primitive, because the animal is preserved only unconditional reflexes. The fact that the animal within individual life are produced conditional reflexes, i.e. animal "learns" to respond to the action of signal stimuli, is the fact the pain in biological values.
To illustrate this value will give two examples.
Imagine that the animal will be able to respond to food only when the food will get him in the mouth; the animal, provided itself, obviously, will die of hunger. If the animal "learn" to respond to related properties of food, such as appearance, smell it, it will smell to find food, it will actively grab food and get rid of, so from starvation. Therefore, if the animal has developed a conditional reflex on the properties of food, signaling it, it will be immeasurably better than an animal that has only unconditional reflexes.
Imagine also that the animal is capable of responding to the source damaging irritation only when it is subjected to this irritation (unconditional reflex); the animal will inevitably be damaged. If the animal will have a conditional reflex on related properties malicious agent, it will be able to avoid irritating, and it will, undoubtedly, contribute to the preservation of the individual.
The above cases can be developed from a psychological approach. But this explanation is speculative, will be deprived of a sound scientific basis and will not be able to explain the essence of the phenomena observed.
From the positions of the doctrine I. P. Pavlova about conditional reflexes can be approached in an objective, scientific explanation for the observed facts.
Method conditions reflexes allowed I. P. Pavlov deeper "see" in the cerebral cortex and find out the basic laws of the most difficult activities of the animal - the higher nervous activity. Thus, it was found correlation of processes of excitation and inhibition, analysed different types of braking process. But in order from observing the "simple" fact develop a conditioned reflex to approach a detailed analysis of the laws of the higher nervous activity of the animal, I. P. Pavlov and his disciples took many years.
On the basis of conditioned reflexes I. P. Pavlov developed a theory of sleep. According to this theory, the dream is, the internal braking, covering the entire cerebral cortex of the brain and gradually descending to the lower sections of the brain.
In the light of the doctrine of higher nervous activity became understandable and other vital phenomenon of hypnosis, which is seen as the inhibition of separate areas of the cerebral cortex.
Thus, thanks to the teaching of I. P. Pavlov was lifted the veil of mystery and with the phenomenon of hypnosis, which is now being studied physiological methods.
The question of whether "mental" activities result takes place in the brain of material processes or it is completely independent from matter and the product of the "spirit," is the most important question that will give different answers materialists and idealists. The bourgeois state and the Church in every way have haunted "preachers" materialism, as people undermining the foundations of bourgeois domination. The persecution against materialism and his supporters were very strong in pre-revolutionary Russia, and therefore is of particular interest that were born in Russia and developed teaching, explaining "mental activity from a material point of view. It, undoubtedly, was prepared by Russian materialistic philosophy of the XIX century.

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