Miscarriage (Abortus spontaneus)

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In the basis of the onset of spontaneous abortion are changes in tone and excitability of the uterus, in direct connection with which is the severity of contractile activity of the latter.
Changes to the specified properties of the uterus during pregnancy should not be considered in isolation from the state of the body, both somatic and psychiatric, women in General.
As a rule, from the moment of implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus, changes the nature of reflex reactions and first of all is a reorganization of the endocrine function of the organism as a whole at the expense incurred qualitative and quantitative shifts in the ratio gonadotroponah hormones (increase in the production of gonadotropic hormones, hormone yellow body and so on). Changes in hormonal balance, closely linked to changes in the nervous system.
Numerous clinical-physiological studies have established that during pregnancy using neuro-humoral (in particular, hormonal mechanisms reduces the excitability of muscles of the uterus and the last is maintained in a state of normal tonus.
Thanks to these characteristics of the uterus and a number of other factors creates the most favorable opportunities for the correct development of the pregnancy and donashivaniyu it to the full term of maturity of intrauterine fetus.
In maintaining such a "protective" state of the pregnant uterus involve the whole nervous system. However, the main role belongs to the bark of the big hemispheres of the brain, which is the Central point for coordinating all functions of the organism, including the uterus. I. P. Pavlov found that the body is subject to the influences of the cerebral cortex. "This is the highest division, - he wrote, - holds in its conduct of all phenomena taking place in the body". K. M. Bykov and his colleagues have shown that the brain can modify and direct the activities of any internal organ according to the current needs and conditions, created in every single moment.
Therefore, all the internal organs, including the uterus, and the cerebral cortex always function as one system, subordinate to the laws kortiko-visceral relations.
The position expressed by I. P. Pavlov and K. M. Bykov, as well as other physiologists, were confirmed clinical-physiological studies p. P. Lazarev, I. I. Yakovlev and their employees, and other clinicians. They were revealed certain regularities in the restructuring of the functions of the Central nervous system throughout the duration of pregnancy, according to the needs of the developing of the ovum (fruit). It turned out that during pregnancy the predominant influence of inhibitory processes, carried out with the help of neural mechanisms that contribute to conceive and donashivaniyu pregnancy. However, during pregnancy marked "critical points", during which the normal physiological correlations between brain activity and uterus change (p. P. Lazarev). Such critical moments during pregnancy are two: one in early pregnancy (12 - 14 weeks)and the other at the end of it (the last week before the expected birth) is characterized by a particularly sharp increase reflex excitability of the uterus. Due to this, already the smallest power of irritation, both internal and external, can change the state of the tone of the gravid uterus and cause reduction. In these critical moments usually there is a decrease in excitability of the cerebral cortex and the increased excitability in the spinal cord. Therefore disrupted normal neuronal transmission of impulses, as well as apperentice them in subcortical centers. Ultimately comes increased reflexes, which, according to p. P. Lazarev, and explains the tendency to occurrence of miscarriage or premature birth.
Provisions p. P. Lazarev were confirmed in the research of L. L. Levinson, held at our Department.
The results electroencephalographic studies indicate that changes in the electrical activity of the brain in women during pregnancy under the influence exteroceptive and interoceptive alarm they are of legal nature; they mean a lot to rebuild the life of the body during pregnancy and in the biomechanism of labor.
Active pregnant womb is from transmitters nervous excitation current at the end and the synapses of the autonomic nervous system, namely: adrenalin substance of the sympathetic nervous system prepare and continuously increase (by changing lability of the Central nervous system) tone muscles of the uterus, and directly "starting" function (uterine) shall acetylcholine (A. P. Nikolaev, HP Persianinov and others). In recent years, a number of researchers questioned the role of acetylcholine in the unleashing of the regular contractile activity of the uterus (M. Century Dubnov, G. B. Tverskoi, p. P. Nikulin).