Abscess (ulcer, abscess) - a limited accumulation of pus in the tissues due to purulent inflammation melting tissue and the formation of a cavity. The cause of the abscess is penetration into tissues of pyogenic bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, etc.) through damaged skin (abrasion, wound), and hematogenous metastasis in General purulent infection (metastatic abscess). The cause of the abscess may be a violation of the rules of aseptics during medical manipulations. The so-called "aseptic" abscess may occur when introduced into the fabric of turpentine, mercuric chloride and other substances.
Abscesses are in various organs and tissues (skin, subcutaneous tissue, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain and so on). There are abscesses acute and chronic, single and multiple. In acute abscess available to the inspection and palpation, there are local symptoms: pain, sharply increasing at a touch and pressure, swelling and voltage tissue, skin redness. First, at a palpation is determined seal (inflammatory infiltration), and further appears symptom fluctuations. It is explained by the presence of pus in the abscess cavity. In addition to local symptoms develop a common phenomenon: malaise, fatigue, headache, fever.
When the abscess deep in the tissues and internal organs (liver, kidneys and other) local symptoms cannot be found. Recognition of an abscess in such cases is possible only on the basis of common clinical manifestations of disease, and special studies: the study of the blood picture, radiography. In chronic abscess signs of acute inflammation may be missing, revealed swelling, pain, symptom fluctuations.
Treatment. In acute abscess to education abscess cavity (i.e. when there is only local pain and swelling) useful application of cold. If the pain subsides and other local symptoms (increased redness of the skin, signs of lymphangitis), go to the application of heat (heating pad, compresses, physiotherapy). Recommended antibiotics (penicillin from 600 thousand to 1 million UNITS per day), sulfonamides (streptocide to 0.5-1 g 3-4 times a day), antipyretics (acetylsalicylic acid, amidopyrine , and so on).
With the softening of the inflammatory infiltrate and chronic abscess needs surgery - incision with the subsequent treatment of the wounds of the General rules for the treatment of wounds healing by second intention (see the Wound, injury). For opening a small skin and subcutaneous abscesses sufficient local anesthesia of 0.5% solution novokaina. For large abscesses shown anesthesia. Small abscesses can be cut in the conditions of clinic, patients with large abscesses and expressed the overall response should be hospitalized.
Prevention. To avoid the development of the abscess is necessary to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, the rules upgrades in the injections, the treatment of wounds, to carefully handle every, even the small, skin injury (lubrication alcoholic iodine solution, the imposition leykoplastyrb, colloidal, clervoy bandages).
Abscesses internal organs - see the article by name organs (brain, lungs, liver, and others).