Acanthosis nigricans

acanthosis nigricansAcanthosis nigricans (black acanthosis) - rare papillary pigmentary degeneration of the skin; characterized by hyperpigmentation, papillomatosis, and hyperkeratosis. Changes in the skin are located symmetrically mainly in the field of bends and skin folds (Fig. 4). There are two forms of acanthosis nigricans: youth (benign), usually manifested in his youth and regressing with age; late (malignant) form of adults, which is often combined with cancer of the internal organs. The treatment of black acanthosis: concentrate of vitamin a in 10 drops 3 times a day, ascorbic acid 0.25 g 3 times a day; naruzhno 0,5% salicylic ointment. All patients Acanthosis nigricans be carefully cancer screening, and clinical observation. Forecast for life favorable in the absence of cancer.

Acanthosis nigricans [from Greek. akantha - spike-thorn lat. nigricans - blackish; synonym distrophie papillaire et pigmentaire (J. Darier), black acanthosis] - rare degeneration of the skin, characterized by Hyper-pigmentation and papillary hyperplasia. The etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. Described cases of family illness acanthosis nigricans in several generations. There are two forms of acanthosis nigricans - malignant and benign (juvenile).
Show a connection between acanthosis nigricans and cancer of organs of abdominal cavity. According to Darya (J. Darier), in 80% of cases in acanthosis nigricans is detected cancer of the abdomen, rarely - cancer of other organs (breast, lung and so on). Skin lesions may precede the appearance of the cancer, occur at the same time or to be the first clinical symptom of developing tumors.
Skin changes with acanthosis nigricans develop gradually and are located symmetrically, mainly in skin folds axillary, inguinal femoral and megapolices areas, perineum, elbow and knee, in the navel, and also on the neck, genitals, less often on the face, hands, buttocks and only rarely on the scalp. In some cases, there may be amazed at all the skin. In addition to the skin, in the process involved the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, eyes, vagina, rectum, and esophagus, thick guts and even renal pelvis. Histologically - hyperkeratosis, sharp acanthosis and papillomatosis, an increase of pigment in the basal layer cells in the dermis large number of melanopogon.
Clinically skin changes are characterized by pronounced pigmentation of affected areas from dark-brown to nearly black, passing no sharp boundaries in the normal color of the surrounding skin, and enhance skin of the figure. On this background there are numerous papillomatosis and warty growths slate-black and soft fibroids. On mucous membranes appear papillomatosis and warty growths grayish-white in color, without pigments. Juvenile form acanthosis nigricans is different from malignant less pigmentation and weak intensity papillomatosic growths.
Diagnosis black acanthosis is no problem. From acanthosis nigricans should distinguish the so-called pseudogenes (pseudoakanthosis nigricans)observed in fat brunettes. Skin lesion when pseudogenes different from skin lesions with acanthosis nigricans weaker papillary hyperplasia, increased when a person gains weight, and disappears with weight loss. For pseudoacacia benign.
All patients black acanthosis be carefully cancer examination and continuous dispensary observation. Treatment for malignant form, usually unsuccessfully, due to rapid metastasizing tumors. When juvenile form shown restorative treatment, vitamins, particularly vitamin C 1.5 g / day, significantly reducing the pigmentation. In endocrine disorders - hormone therapy.