Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid (synonym: hydrochloric acid, acidum hydrochloricum; Hcl) is a strong monobasic acid. Obtained by dissolution in water gaseous hydrogen chloride (Hcl). In aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid dissociates ions: HCl is due to H++Cl-. Pure hydrochloric acid is colorless liquid with a sharp smell. Technical hydrochloric acid containing traces of iron, chlorine, arsenic and other substances, a yellow-green color. Saturated aqueous solution of Hcl, containing about 42% hydrogen chloride, hardly smoke in the air (Smoking hydrochloric acid), as released Hcl forms with water vapor air smallest drops of hydrochloric acid. Concentrated hydrochloric acid produced in the sale, contains about 38% Hcl.
Hydrochloric acid dissolves many metals, oxides and hydroxides of metals, the formation of salts of hydrochloric acid (chlorides).
In the gastric juice in norm contains about 0.2% of hydrochloric acid in facilitating the transition of food masses from the stomach into the duodenum and neutralizing germs that enter into the stomach from the external environment. Hydrochloric acid activates the enzyme of pepsinogen, participates in the formation of secretin and some other stimulating hormone of the pancreas.
Hydrochloric acid is widely used in engineering and laboratories. Smallest drops of hydrochloric acid, as well as gaseous Hcl irritate the mucous membranes, causing coughing and breathlessness. Chronic poisoning leads to the destruction of teeth and gastrointestinal disorders. After contact with skin hydrochloric acid causes burns.
First aid: inhalation of 2% solution of bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate). When you burn the affected area immediately washed with water, then the solution of bicarbonate of soda and water again.
Maximum permissible concentration of Hcl in the air of working premises 5 mg per 1 m3.
Cm. also Acid Poisoning.
Drugs hydrochloric acid. Diluted hydrochloric acid (Acidum hydrochloricum dilutum, Acidum muriaticum purum dilutum). Contains 1 part pure hydrochloric acid and 2 parts water. The content of hydrogen chloride is 8.2-8.4 percent. Used in drops and medicines in Hypo - and anatsidnyh gastritis, ahilii stomach, dyspepsia. When hypochromic anemia to improve iron absorption divorced hydrochloric acid. appointed with drugs iron (on 10-15 drops 2-4 times a day, during or after meals; higher doses: single - 30 drops, daily - 90 drops). Storage: list B.in flasks with ground traffic.
Often the drugs hydrochloric acid administered in combination with pepsin (see). Pills acidin-pepsin (Acidin-pepsinum) contain 1 part of pepsin and 4 parts of betaine hydrochloride. In the stomach betaine hydrochloride separates free hydrochloric acid. 0.4 g betaine hydrochloride equivalent to about 16 drops, divorced hydrochloric acid. Form: tablets : 0.25-0.5 g inside Appoint 0.5 g 3-4 times a day during meals or after meals. Tablet previously dissolved in 1/4 Cup water.