Nicotinic acid

Nicotinic acid (Acidum nicotinicum; synonym vitamin PP; list B) refers to the complex of vitamin C. Contains in products of plant and animal origin. Nicotinic acid is part of the enzymesinvolved in redox processes of the organism. Daily need of nicotine acid adult - 15 mg, for pregnant - 20 mg, nursing mothers - 25 mg
Applied nicotinic acid as a specific means for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, and liver disease, heart, stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenal ulcers, weak healing ulcers and wounds. In connection with vasodilator nicotinic acid is used alone or in combination with other drugs (see Regexen) when spasm of extremity vessels, kidneys, and brain. Appoint nicotinic acid inside or intravenously, higher doses for adults inside: single 0.1 g daily 0.2 g (when the pellagra - 0.5 g)admission: single - 0.05 g (with pellagra - 0.1 g), daily - 0.1 g (with pellagra - 0.3 g). Method of production: powder; bean to 0,015 g; pills to 0.05 g; ampoules containing 1 ml of 1% solution of sodium salt of nicotinic acid.

Vitamin PP - nicotine acid is obtained in the form of crystals. It is soluble in water and alcohol, resistant to high temperature and adapts well to the action of acids and alkalis. As a chemical compound nicotinic acid has been used for over 150 years, but its importance for humans and animals, scientists discovered relatively recently.
Most rich nicotinic acid yeast and rice bran. A good source it is also the wheat and bread baked from wheat flour. From meat products most of vitamin e in the liver, and less meat. Milk and dairy products contain little nicotinic acid, but nevertheless, for the reasons below we will explain these products play an important role in the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with lack of content in the body of vitamin PP.
Nicotinic acid, as well as Riboflavin, is part of the enzymes involved in the processes of tissue respiration. The absence in the diet of vitamin e or a violation of his absorption and assimilation leads to the decrease of the content of this vitamin in the tissues. This entails disorder cell respiration, infringement of the nervous system and other organs and systems. The disease is called pellagra.
When pellagra there are changes in the skin, diarrhea, and in severe cases, mental disorders. The skin, mostly on the open parts of the body (face, neck, hands), darkens, become rough, scaly (in Italian "pellagra" - "rough skin"). In early disease patients complain of increased saliva, tingling and pain in the language, persistent diarrhea, and then appear skin changes.
Pellagra is a complex disease. It occurs not only when lack of food nicotinic acid, although this is its main cause, but at deficiency of proteins. In addition, when pellagra there is a lack of other vitamins, including Riboflavin and vitamin B1 which are found in the same foods, and nicotinic acid.
Why the lack of proteins causes pellagra and what is the connection between proteins food and nicotinic acid?
Proteins, including food proteins are complex compounds that consist of separate component parts of amino acids. One of these amino acids is the so-called tryptophan, which in humans and some animals form a nicotinic acid. Thus, tryptophan is a precursor of vitamin nicotinic acids, and proteins - the source of this vitamin. That's why lack of food proteins, especially in combination with the lack of nicotinic acid, predispose to the emergence of pellagra.
Of great importance in the prevention of pellagra has qualitative composition of proteins individual products, as not all proteins contain the same number of tryptophan. A lot of it in the proteins of meat, milk, dairy products, eggs, less - in the proteins of plant products.
In connection with the role of tryptophan in education nicotinic acid protivopodagricescoe value of food is determined not only by the content of vitamin e, but his Pro-vitamin - tryptophan. For example, in milk products are relatively few nicotinic acid, but a lot of tryptophan and because milk, cheese, cheese are a valuable tool in the prevention and even treatment of pellagra. The number of tryptophan regular food may not fully address the human need of nicotine acid. Therefore, in order not to get sick pellagra, a person needs constant receipt of nicotinic acid in the diet.
Vitamin industry produces drugs, nicotine acid in the form of pills and capsules.
As a medicinal substance nicotinic acid is used in the gastro-intestinal diseases, liver disease, bronchial asthma, diseases of the nervous system. Nicotinic acid was also useful as a supporting therapeutic means used for elimination of adverse effects on the organism of industrial poisons, and in the treatment of radiation sickness.