Adenovirus infections

  • Adenovirus infections in children
  • Adenovirus infections - the group of acute illnesses caused by adenoviruses.
    Adenoviruses is a large group of DNA-containing viruses. Their role in the pathology of the rights differently. The most important are 3, 4, 7, 8, 14, 21 serological types of adenoviruses. They are relatively stable in the environment, inactivated only after warming up with 2 degrees of 56 degrees and processing solutions of bleach (0.5% of the activated solution) and phenol (5%solution). Adenoviruses breed well on a tissue of humans and animals.
    Adenovirus infections are common in all countries of the world and meet throughout the year with little seasonal rise in cold weather. In spring and summer, increasing the number of cases of pharyngo-conjunctival fever. More sick children. The source of infection is a sick person, especially in the first days of the disease. Infection occurs through the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and eyes. The main way of transmission - drip, but there are nutritional, as the virus multiplies and in the intestinal mucosa.
    The pathogenesis of adenovirus infections are not well understood. Penetrating into the human body, the virus is accumulated in the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, eyes, digestive tract. The result is cell death and released the virus penetrates into new cells. This raises catarrhal inflammation. An important step in the pathogenesis of adenovirus infections is wirusami explaining the wave-like nature of the disease. Immunity when adenovirus infections of typespecifier, that is, the body becomes immune only to that type of adenoviruses that caused the disease.
    The clinical picture and diagnosis. The incubation period is usually 4-6 days may vary from 3 to 12 days. The disease begins gradually, lasts 8-14 days, differs wavy course. Depending on the localization process adenovirus infection can manifest itself in various clinical forms. The main of them are: rinofaringita, pharyngo-conjunctival fever, bronchitis and pneumonia. It is also possible rhinopharyngitis, rinofaringit, husked or follicular conjunctivitis, laryngotracheobronchitis (false croup), diarrhea, nonspecific mutagenic (generalized form). Temperature adenovirus infection varies 37,2 - 40 degrees, but usually 38-39 degrees. Phenomena toxicity expressed weakly or moderately. The symptomology depends on the distribution process. Defeat respiratory often limited to the nasopharynx. From the first days of the disease develop rhinitis with abundant serous discharge and inflammation of the pharynx (pharyngitis) with pains in the throat, moderate hyperemia and swelling of the arms, the back of the throat; on the background of hyperemia and edema found hyperplastic bright follicles. Often affects tonsils. They increased giperemiei, with soft whitish-yellow tinge. Moderately increase the regional lymph nodes, liver and spleen. The mucous membrane of the larynx becomes involved in the process rarely. Constant symptom - short cough, usually with sputum. The symptoms with the defeat of adenovirus infection of the bronchi and lungs - see Bronchitis, Pneumonia. The skin is very rare small roseolous or petechial rash. Characteristic features of pharyngo-conjunctival fever: fever, pharyngitis and conjunctivitis, often gastrointestinal disorders. Complications: otitis, the defeat of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria.
    In the diagnosis must be considered typical for adenovirus infection long wavy flow, weak toxicosis, bright displays of rhinitis, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis. Etiological diagnosis in the study of discharge from the nose method immunofluorescence (detection of antigens adenoviruses in the cells of cylindrical epithelium discharge from the nose). Have value for retrospective diagnosis laboratory methods: virus isolation on a tissue of nasopharyngeal swabs, feces and blood, and serological studies.
    Treatment. Specific treatments for adenovirus infections not. Application deoxyribonuclease and interferon is effective for adenovirus conjunctivitis, in other forms of effect is weaker. Appropriate tools that enhance the body's resistance (plasma, vitamins, gammaglobulin). With localized forms adenovirus infections prevention of bacterial infection is carried by local treatment: at disease of the throat - gargling with a solution of sodium bicarbonate (1/2 teaspoon on 1 glass of water) or a weak solution of (pale pink) permanganate (permanganate) potassium, lubricating mucous membrane of the posterior pharyngeal wall Lugol solution, with the defeat of eye - drops in kongungualny bag of 30% of a solution sulfatsil-sodium (sulfacetamide) 1-2 drops 3-4 times a day. With the defeat of the bronchi and the lungs must supervision of a physician, in case of a bacterial complications - the use of antibiotics.
    Prevention: isolation from the community to the disappearance of clinical manifestations of infection. At home, the patient should be isolated from others, especially children (placed in a separate room or separated by a screen, a curtain in the common room). For the patient produce dishes that are washed separately from the dishes of other family members and wipe separate towel.