Adrenaline

Adrenaline (Adrenalinum; synonym: Epinephrine, Suprarenale) is a hormone, produced cerebral layer napochechnikov.
The secretion of adrenaline increases sharply with emotional reactions (fear, anger, and so on), blood loss, hypoxia , and so on, the Action of adrenaline similar to effect of excitation of the sympathetic (adrenergic) nerves. Adrenaline causes narrowing of the majority of vessels, increases heartbeat, increase blood pressure. On heart rate adrenaline has a direct stimulatory and inhibitory reflex effect (due to a rise in blood pressure). In the result of cardiac activity may slow down. Under the influence of adrenaline dilate the bronchi, relaxes the muscles of the intestine with a simultaneous reduction of his sphincter, the pupil expands. Adrenaline increases the disintegration of glycogen in the liver (increased sugar content in the blood) and muscles.
In medical practice, use of epinephrine hydrochloride (Adrenalinum hydrochloricum; list B), which refers to adrenomimeticescoe funds (see). The drug is used during the collapse, bronchial asthma, serum sickness, hypoglycemic coma, topically to stop the bleeding, to reduce inflammatory phenomena in the runny nose and conjunctivitis; it is added to the anaesthetic means to extend their reach. The highest dose of 0.1% solution under the skin: single - 1 ml, daily - 5 ml
Adrenaline hydrochloride is contraindicated in hypertensionexpressed arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy. You cannot apply it in anaesthesia with halothane, cyclopropane, chloroform. Method of production: 0.1% solution in vials to 30 ml (for external use and in ampoules to 1 ml of 0.1% solution for parenteral introduction.

Adrenaline (Adrenalinum; from lat. ad - in and renalis - kidney; synonym: epinephrine, suprarenal; 9N13O3) - hormone brain substance napochechnikov; 3,4-deoxy-alpha-phenyl -?-methyliminodiethanol (or 1-methylaminocrotonate). Refers to simpatomimeticeski amines, containing in the ring two axagroup in o-position; melts at temperature 212-215 degrees of decomposition; almost insoluble in water and air, poorly soluble in alcohol, soluble in acids and alkalis. Usually used hydrochloric adrenaline soluble in water (8,35% at temperature 5 degrees, 20,42% at temperature of 100 degrees). Adrenaline is easily oxidized, especially in alkaline medium and light; the solutions of its purchase pink, yellow-green and brownish color. Ascorbic acid, thiosulfate and other substances with reducing properties, can stabilize the adrenaline.
Adrenaline affects many physiological systems and biochemical processes, the effect being in many ways similar to the effects of excitation of the sympathetic nervous system; has a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect on the heart, narrow vessels (except for coronary and vessels of skeletal muscles, it extends). Under the influence of adrenaline relaxes smooth muscles bronchi, bowel and bladder, increasing the pupil, stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver (leading to hyperglycemia), in the muscles (which may be accompanied by lactocidine). Adrenaline also affects the oxidative processes, increasing oxygen demand. The basis of action of adrenaline on carbohydrate metabolism lies, perhaps, its impact on phosphorylase. It promotes the transformation of the inactive form of the enzyme active. It is established that A. plays a significant role in the mobilization of all systems and forces of the organism in the conditions of "extreme", "stress", in extreme conditions. Secretion A. under the direct influence of the nervous system. It strongly influenced by various emotional States (fear, anger, pain), and blood loss, insulin hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism, General x-ray irradiation, hypoxia, various intoxications and so Often repeated emotional and other incentives "throwing" adrenaline can lead to pathological changes, particularly in the heart.
Neurotransmitter function of the sympathetic nervous system peculiar to norepinephrine. A. - hormonal level of sympathetic-adrenal system, however, according to some, the byproducts can participate in the functions of simpatiej. The most likely path of synthesis of adrenaline in the body: tyrosine → Dov → deoxygenation (dopamine) - > noradrenaline → adrenaline. In the medulla of the adrenal glands A. contains granules in connection with protein and ATP. Released into the blood quickly A. is caught by the authorities and subjected to various transformations: binding proteins (proteininae), oxidation of the side chain, phenolic groups, o-methylation, education pair connections with sulphuric and glukuronova acids.
To determine A. proposed a number of methods. The most sensitive and specific modifications are fluorometric methods: trichinopoly and etilendiaminom. Cm. also Hormones.
Adrenaline hydrochloric (Adrenalinum hydrochloricum, FH, list B, synonym Epinephrine) refers to adrenomimeticescoe means. Used during the collapse, bronchial asthma, serum sickness, hypoglycemic coma. Solutions A. add to the solutions of anesthetics to extend their reach and reduce bleeding. Other indications, and contraindications - see Adrenomimeticescoe funds. Appoint A. in the form of injections under the skin and in muscles, for drawing on mucous membranes, sometimes injected into a vein (very slowly and carefully!). Inside A. not appointed, as it is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. The highest dose of 0.1% solution A. subcutaneously: single -1 ml, daily 5 ml of the Drug issue in vials to 30 ml for outdoor use and in ampoules to 1 ml of 0.1% solution. Shelf life 1 year. Brown solutions A. or containing sludge for use are not suitable.