Aerosols

Aerosols - airborne solid or liquid particles with sizes from 10-7 to 10-3 see Solid particles with a size of more than 10-3 cm, refer to dust (see). Aerosols of solid particles, also called smokes and aerosols from liquid particles - fog. Aerosols are classified according to their nature (organic and inorganic), toxicity and radioactivity, the nature of the particles (bacterial) and other features. Many Rosalia (toxic, radioactive, bacterial and others) can have harmful effects on humans either directly (causing various diseases)and indirectly (reducing the transparency of the atmosphere, causing the death of green plantations).
For individual protection from harmful aerosols use special bandages, respirators (see), masks (see) and costumes. For cleaning air from aerosols use various methods and technical devices (filters, cyclones and other). In connection with the fact that the harmful aerosols enter the body mainly through the respiratory system and can cause mass diseases, are essential measures for sanitary protection of atmospheric air (see) from industrial and other pollution with harmful substances.
Aerosols are widely used in various fields of medicine - aerosol (see), inhalation immunization, disinfection , etc. Aerosols receive through special sprayers, generators, aerosol bombs and checkers.

Aerosols (gr. aer - air and it. Sole, from lat. solutio - dissolution, solution) - the disperse systems consisting of a small (10-3-10-7 cm) solid or liquid particles suspended in air or other gaseous environments. Share on fumes (suspended particulate matter) and mists (suspended liquid particles). Aerosols are formed in natural conditions (dust, mist), in the explosions, grinding, grinding, chemical reactions, sublimation, are created with the help of special generators. Radioactive aerosols are divided into "low" (activity particles less than 10-13 Curie.), "polugracii" (10-13-10-10 Curie) and hot (over 10-10 Curie). By way of education they are divided into natural (formed in the decay of natural radioactive substances), the bombings (at nuclear explosions) and industrial (as a result of the activities of institutions and enterprises that use radioactive substances and sources of ionizing radiation). About 90% of aerosols in the atmosphere have a particle size less than 0.5 microns (more 0,005 - 0,035 MK).
In the air of working premises usually dominated by particles as small as 10 microns (40-90%- less than 2 microns).
Under other equal conditions (the level of toxicity and other) hygienic A. is primarily determined by the degree of dispersion (particle size) and the mass concentration (number of particles in a unit volume of air). The nature and sedimentation rate aerosols are determined by the meteorological conditions, size and particle shape, density and other Speed of sedimentation of particles with size more than 5 MK, under the influence of gravity (without air turbulence and influence precipitation) approximately defined by law Stokes equations. The particles with the size less than 5 microns, moved in accordance with the laws of Brownian motion and can remain in the air for a long time in suspension. 1 cm3 particles whose diameter is equal to 1 MK, has the total surface of the particles of the order of 6 m2. This huge surface area superfine A. largely due to their high biological activity. One of the important properties of A. - presence on their particle electric charge (positive or negative).
Aerosols are widely used in medicine (inhalation immunization, aerosol therapy, disinfection, disinsection and deratization, hygienic and Toxicological studies and so on), agriculture (A. insectofungicides and others) and other fields of science and technology.
To obtain A. are special sprayers and generators, aerosol bombs and aerosol checkers.
The greatest importance is the effect of toxic A. on the respiratory system. As a rule, aerosols, particles of considerable size (5-10 microns) are trapped in the bronchi, in the alveoli penetrate only particles smaller. Particle size less than 0.2 MK little delayed in the alveoli and almost completely removed during exhalation. Despite this, they can pose a significant health hazard. A. having the form of plates (mica, feldspar) or fibers (glass or mineral fibre, textile fibers), can penetrate into the alveoli, having large sizes. The number of particles A. remaining in the lungs, depends on the nature and may achieve significant greatness (see Pneumoconiosis). Hit in the light of "hot" radioactive particles can cause focal leaf tissue becoming necrotic cells. Apparently, possibly up a malignant degeneration of the surrounding tissue.
For protection from harmful A. subject to special respirators (see), masks (see) and costumes (see protective Clothing). For cleaning air from A. used a number of special methods (see Sanitary protection of atmospheric air). Cm. also Dust and Radioactive waste.