Aerosol

Aerosol - treatment by the inhalation of aerosols of medicinal substances. Medicinal substance in the form of aerosols , depending on the dispersion (the degree of fragmentation) penetrate to a particular depth in the respiratory tract, and from there to the lymph and blood, providing also a reflex action through nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and the skin. Aerosols of drugs acting on the mucous membrane and the receptor apparatus of the respiratory tract, strengthen the function of ciliated epithelium, the secretion of mucous glands, lowers tone smooth muscles bronchi, improve the function of external respiration, have a beneficial effect on the Central nervous system and cardiovascular system.
Aerosols are used mainly for the prevention and treatment of infectious, viral (especially influenza), occupational and other diseases of the respiratory tract, bronchial asthma in the stage of remission or infrequent light attacks. For inhalation use different solutions of antibiotics, bronhorasshirath funds, alkaline, alkaline-saline and other mineral waters, antihistamines, anti-fungal drugsand chemotherapy of TB drugs.
Contraindications to aerosol therapy are the same as for aeroionotherapy (see).
aerosol inhaler PAI-1For conducting aerosol therapy is used instruments for individual use: portable aerosol inhalers AI-1; portable aerosol inhalers PAI-1 and PAI-2 (Fig. 1); pocket vaporizers. In addition, to apply universal inhalers AP-2, designed for two patients (Fig. 2), and stationary installation of the Kharkov plant with 4, 8 and 12 points. Aerosol inhalers placed in a special room ingaljatory.
generic inhaler AP-2Generic inhalers are designed for premises with the area of 12-20 m2, inhaler individual use - on the area not less than 4 m2 on each installation. In ingaljatory air temperature should be about 20 degrees; supply-and-exhaust ventilation is required. Tips and masks boil in a separate room. In the application of apparatuses of individual use of the output devices, caps and masks lead directly to the patient's mouth, aerosol therapy inhalers for patients of group use is placed at a distance of 1 to 1.5 m from the nebulizer. Procedure duration from 3 to 20 minutes (or every day). The total number of procedures in the course of 10 to 20, depending on the purpose of the doctor. With the possible aggravation of the process, usually observed after 5-6-th procedures, treatment should be interrupted for 3-4 days or decrease the duration of procedures.
Electroaerosol therapy is a method of treatment of aerosols medicinal substances having negative or positive charge - electrical aerosol. Applied mainly negatively charged electrical aerosol. Unlike aerosols, likely charged the electrical aerosol not "stick together" into larger conglomerates and therefore penetrate the respiratory tract deeply, up to the alveoli. For electroheliotherapy choose pharmacological agents, is indicated for use in this disease.
The use of electroheliotherapy shown in chronic respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma, hypertension I and II And stage, rheumatic heart diseases (inactive phase), diseases of the respiratory tract and lungs. Contraindications are the same as for aeroionotherapy (see).
To obtain electrical aerosol use different types of electroisolation: manual generator electrical aerosol - "Electrosol-1" (Fig. 3), which included to spray medicinal mud is used compressor from AI-1 or any other source of compressed air; private electroaerosols apparatus e-62 (Fig. 4); the generator of the electrical aerosol chamber (HES-1) design VNIIMP.
For group inhalation using HES-1 separate bathroom; compressor and remote control stand in an isolated space.
Rules of conduct of electroheliotherapy the same as aerosol therapy. Aerosol and electroaerosol therapy is paramedical personnel for the purposes and under the supervision of a physician.

Aerosol - the use of dispersed systems (aerosols) by inhalation for the treatment of some diseases. The rate of absorption by the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract 20 times higher than from the gastrointestinal tract, because of the huge surface of the alveolar epithelium and the mucous membrane of the lungs (50-140 m2). If the expand all the alveoli, they will occupy the area, 800 times higher than the surface of the stomach. This largely explains the efficiency aerosol therapy.
To turn pharmacological preparations in aerosol therapy, there are a number of installations and devices (e.g., aerosol unit AI-1). Inhaler AI-1 allows treatment of patients with various diseases of the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and heart. Formed by the device fine system of a medicinal product penetrates into the deepest lungs, which helps absorbability inhalation substances from the lungs to the lymph and blood. Spraying of the solution lasts 10-15 minutes At lobar or focal pneumonia light and medium gravity rational inhalation aerosol-penicillin 200 000 IU 2-3 times a day, the course of treatment is 3 000 000 UNITS, as this antibiotic come directly to inflammatory foci. Therapeutic effect inhalation aerosol-penicillin in cases of acute suppurative processes at multiple bronchiectasis (with lung abscess, gangrene of the lungs). Single dose of penicillin from 100 000 to 200 000 IU per course of treatment is from 3 000 000 to 15 000 000 IU. Inhalation A. antibiotics when pneumosclerosis eliminate the aggravation of pneumonia, bronchitis, contribute to the progression delay of pneumosclerosis. Widely used inhalation aerosol-penicillin in combination with bronchodilators and antihistamines in bronchial asthma. Aerosol therapy cardiac glycosides (corglycon, strofantin) used for pulmonary heart, rheumatic heart disease etiology, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis with circulatory failure of the I-III degrees (to 0.5 - 1 ml of 0.05% solution strofantina or 0.5-1 ml 0,06% solution of corglycon add 2.5 to 3 ml of distilled water). The effect of treatment is evaluated on the basis of clinical data: pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and electric and ballistocardiography.
Side effects in aerosol therapy is not observed.


Electroaerosol therapy is one of the methods aerosol therapy, which is characterized by the fact that aerosols are given positive or negative electric charge from an external source, built in generator aerosols. Inside the generator A. charged both positive and negative signs of high potential, and every bit of A. can carry a lot of elementary charges. But one of the signs of the charge is neutralized still inside the generator special electrostatic precipitator. The result from the nozzle of the generator current of air submitted to the electrical aerosol only one chosen in advance sign of the charge. Indications and contraindications to the use of electroheliotherapy essentially the same as for the aerosol therapy. The advantage electrical aerosol before A. in more activity, since being charged same electric charge of the electrical aerosol have mutual repulsion and are unable to coagulate (stick together) in the air; their specific surface and, therefore, contact with mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, where they are introduced during medical procedures remain the largest. Higher therapeutic activity of electroaerosol explained by the fact that by its pharmacological action joins the action of electric charge, the bearer of which is A. Therefore, electroaerosol therapy is a technique that combines the aerosol and aeroionization. The return of the electric charge A. mucous membranes of the respiratory tract are at different levels, but it should be borne in mind that increasing dispersion A. penetrate more deeply into the respiratory tract, AU A. may, reaches depths and part of electric charges. Blood levels of antibiotics, including streptomycin, are entered in the state of electroaerosol, considerably above, than at usual inhalation. When exposed electrical aerosol slows ROHE, normalizes the composition of protein fractions of blood, improves blood pH, boost redox, metabolic and trophic processes.
For electroheliotherapy use of special devices - electroisolating. The technique of medical applications of electrical aerosol analogous to the methods of application A., but dosage duration and frequency of impacts and number them in the medical course close to the dosage used for aeroionotherapy.