Aerootite

Aerootite is an inflammation of the middle ear as a result of sharp changes of barometric pressure of the surrounding air. There is often at military pilots and experimenters in hyperbaric chambers, y flight crew, passengers of Aeroflot and crew transport aircraft. The emergence of aerootite contribute violations ventilation function of the auditory (Evstafieva) pipe. Signs of aerootite: the feeling of stuffiness, pain, and sometimes the noise in the ear, diminished hearing. Treatment: suspension of flights and experiments in the chamber, boleuspokaivajushchee tools inside, drops of sossoudossoujiwate funds (2% solution of ephedrine and others) in the nose. Cm. also Otitis.

Under this name the combined group acute pathological changes in the middle ear, which are developing at a rapid descent of the aircraft. Actually otitis, that is an inflammatory disease of the ear, developing only in part of the cases, but this name was strengthened in practice. As the etiologic factor here appears the compression ratio. At the flight altitude of modern aircraft, more than 20 km, the pressure at descent increased by 6-8 times. Although these fluctuations occur within 1 ATM. (unlike caisson diving, where the pressure of 5 atmospheres), they are no less dangerous. As established by the research, the harmful effects of pressure fluctuations depends on the pressure changes in relative numbers. Rapid reduction of pressure from 8 to 4 ATM. just as dangerous as from 2 to 1 ATM., or from 1 to 0.5 ATM. This refers to the selection of bubbles of nitrogen from the tissues into the blood.
On the mechanism actions of the middle ear, great importance is the speed differential pressure. If descent is fast, while the air pressure in the ear canal is growing rapidly, the air in the middle ear remains sparse due to the relative vacuum. Depending on the degree of rarefaction of some changes from retraction of the tympanic membrane and the injection of vessels along the handle of a little hammer to diffuse redness of the entire ear, submucosal hemorrhages, education sero-bloody fluid in the tympanic cavity. All this is accompanied by various degrees of hearing loss and tinnitus. In some cases developed purulent inflammation of the middle ear. According to Right, purulent process developed in 270 of the 9000 patients aerootitis (3%).
To the emergence of aerootite predispose inflammatory diseases of nasopharynx, nasal and paranasal sinuses, which may involve the mucous membrane Evstafieva pipes. MS Gibbon found one-third of patients with aerootitis diseases of the nose and nasopharynx. SteVart, examined about 15 000 pilots denies any connection between aeration and diseases of the nose and nasopharynx. G. Armstrong (1954) was able to establish that the increased incidence of diseases of upper Airways entails increased aerootitis.
Acute advanced when aerootite pathological changes in the middle ear are not easily reverse development, just like there always is a full hearing. Serous bloody fluid in part of the cases is organized and in the eardrum formed adhesive bridges, reducing vibrations of the eardrum and auditory ossicles. The result may be persistent hearing loss. Naturally, this applies mainly to those diseases that are not promptly treated.
Known is the origin of aerootite, apparently, have individual factors. Some people often fall ill, although visible changes on the part of the ear and upper respiratory tract no. Perhaps it depends on venting capacity of the pipe itself. Under normal conditions, for example, the narrowing of the tubes or any other defect can easily be compensated. At higher the requirements in non-physiological conditions of compensation is difficult.
Aerootite belongs to relatively frequent diseases. To Teatro employ persons with severe forms of destruction. According to the Bight, based on a survey of pilots which have been tested in a chamber with low blood pressure, aerootite observed in approximately 10%.
In the pathogenesis of aerootite, as experience shows, the main role is played by the increase of pressure on your eardrum outside. This, of course, explained by the fact that the acceleration during the descent more often than when lifting. However, some role plays and original valve device mouth Evstafieva pipes. Pipe passively opened when the pressure in the middle ear is only slightly increased, for example, when rising to 200 m (pressure increased only 13 g/cm2). Under reduced pressure in the middle ear at a pressure drop of more than 80-90 mm RT. Art. in a moment of lowering the pressure in the nasopharynx increases and the mouth of the pipe shrinks. With a larger exterior pressure soft tissues of the mouth pressed into the lumen of the tube. In such cases, under normal swallowing reduction so tensor and levator veli palati not enough to open the mouth. Requires additional admission experience Valsalva, blowing.
In the pathogenesis of hearing impairment during the stay of the pilots at high altitude is set to low oxygen partial pressure in the air. At the height of 6000 m pilot barely hears the noise of the motor, but when including oxygen equipment for the noise immediately perceived. The experimental data M. P. Brestkin, A. F. Kulaeva (1958), it is important not to reduce the overall amount of oxygen in the blood, and the reduction of tension in the plasma and is associated with hypoxemia low voltage CO2 - hypocapnia.
When the decompression effects in divers, usually expressed only by itching, joint and muscle pain, on the foreground there is extravascular the formation of bubbles. The same happens during the ascent to the altitude.


Aerootite (from the Greek. aer - air and ous, otos - ear - inflammation of the middle ear caused by three factors: temperature (cold in the open cockpit), atmospheric pressure difference (variator), infections. A. can begin with baratita, emerging with the rapid increase of the atmospheric pressure when the valve device nasopharyngeal mouth hearing (Evstafieva) pipe is broken pressure compensation in the tympanic cavity and the outer ear canal. In the tympanic cavity is negative air pressure; as a result, dilate blood vessels and may form transudate. As with a normal Cathars, on the strength of the reaction affect individual propensity for allergic and inflammatory processes. Inadequate ventilation of the middle ear contribute: a deviated septum, hypertrophic rhinitis, atrophy of the nasal Concha, the paranasal tinuity, acute catarrh of the mucous membranes of the nose and nasopharynx. In the clinical picture aerootite like a normal inflammation of the middle ear (see Otitis). Prevention A.: the restoration of the function of the auditory tube. Treatment: introduction to the nose sossoudossoujiwath funds, thermal procedures. With festering - treatment, as in acute otitis media.