Affective syndromes

Affective syndrome - symptom of mental disorders, and mood disorders.
Affective syndromes are divided into two main groups - with a predominance of high (manic) and low (depressed) mood. Patients with depressive syndromes occur many times more often than with manic, and they need to pay special attention, as about 50% of those who commit suicide suffer from depression.
Affective syndromes observed in all mental illnesses. In some cases they are the only manifestations of the disease (circular psychosis, schizophrenia), in others its initial manifestations (progressive paralysis, syphilis, tumors of the brain vascular psychosis). The last circumstance, as well as a very high incidence of suicide among patients with depressive syndromes determined the tactics of behavior of health workers. These patients should be set - strict medical supervision, and they should be directed to a psychiatrist. It must be remembered that not only rude, but just a careless treatment of manic patients always entails strengthening their excitation. On the contrary, attention, sympathy it possible, even for a short time, to achieve their relative calm which is very important for the transportation of these patients.

Affective syndromes syndrome, in the clinical picture of which leading place violation of the emotional sphere - from mood swings to Express its disorders (affections). The nature affects are divided into scenicheskoe proceeding with a predominance of excitation (pleasure, delight), and asthenic - dominated braking (fear, grief, sorrow, despair). For affective syndromes include dysphoria, euphoria, depression, mania.
Dysphoria is a mood disorder characterized by intense, spitefully dreary an affect with severe irritability, reaching to the explosions of anger with aggressiveness. Most often dysphoria meet with epilepsy; in this condition they begin suddenly, with no external reason, last for several days and also suddenly end. There are dysphoria and organic diseases of the CNS, the psychopaths excitable type. Sometimes dysphoria combined with binge drinking.
Euphoria - the perfect mood with a touch of contentment, carelessness, serenity, without acceleration associative processes and increase productivity. Dominated by signs of passivity, idleness. Euphoria occurs in the clinic progressive paralysis, atherosclerosis, brain injuries.

Pathologic affect short - term psychotic condition arising from trauma in people not suffering from mental illness, but characterized by instability of mood and asthenia. The intensity of passion, anger, and wrath upon this state is immeasurably greater than those inherent physiological affects.
Dynamics of pathological affect characterized by three phases: a) asthenic affect resentment, fear, accompanied by violations of thinking (incomplete individual thoughts, their easy rassvetnet) and vegetative disorders (blanching face, hand tremor, dry mouth, decreased muscle tone); b) the emotion becomes stanichny, dominated by rage, anger; consciousness sharply narrows, in its content dominates mental trauma; disorders of consciousness deepen, accompanied by agitation and aggression; the vegetative changes is different: face reddens, pulse quickens, muscle tone is increased; C) withdrawal from pathological affect that is implemented by prostration or sleep with subsequent complete or partial amnesia.
Treatment of affective States. The patients with this or that A. S. requires a physician emergency actions: establish supervision over patients, directions him to a psychiatrist. Depressed patients who can commit suicide attempt, admitted to the Department with intensified supervision. Transporting them to the hospital under constant surveillance of the medical staff. In the outpatient setting (to hospitalization) patients in a state of agitated depression or depression with persistent suicidal attempts prescribed injections 5 ml of 2.5% solution of chlorpromazine.
In the appointment of therapy is considered nosological diagnosis and features of the patient. If depression is a phase circular psychosis, treatment with psychotropic drugs - antidepressants. When the structure of this depression, agitation, anxiety prescribed combination therapy with antidepressants (in the morning) and neuroleptic agents (in the afternoon) or is performed, treatment with nozinan, amitriptyline.
In psychogenic depressions if they are shallow, hospitalization is not necessary because their course regimiento. Treatment sedative and antidepressant drugs.
Patients in a manic state is usually hospitalized because of their irregular and often unethical actions necessary to protect as others, and patients themselves. For the treatment of manic States apply neuroleptic drugs - chlorpromazine, propazin and other Patients with euphoria be hospitalized, as it testifies about intoxication (which requires quick recognition for taking emergency measures), or about organic brain disease, the essence of which should be clarified. Euphoria patients undergoing infectious or General somatic illness at home or in somatic (infectious) hospital, not an indication for hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital. These patients must be under constant supervision of a physician and the staff. To treat them along with restorative means can be used sedatives. Patients in the state epileptic dysphoria also hospitalized in connection with the possibility of aggression.