Acanthocephales

Acanthocephales - helminthiasis, causative agents of which are skrebni - Acanthocephala (koljuchegolovye). The front end of the body of worms stretches in the proboscis, as a rule, armed with hooks. Describes the following three species of spiny-headed worms, parasites in humans.
1. Moniliformis moniliformis siciliensis. Male 40-45 mm in length, female - 70-80 mm Eggs size 0,085X0,045 mm. In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestine mouse and very rarely a person; larvae found that the beetle of Cereteli.
moniliformis2. Moniliformis m. moniliformis (Fig. 1). In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestine of rats and some other animals; described in humans. The intermediate hosts the American cockroach and Zhuk Cereteli. 3. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus. Male with length of 100 - 150 mm, female - 300-650 mm (Fig. 2). In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestines of pigs and some other mammals, very rare in humans; larvae was found in may-bugs.
Infection occurs if swallowed beetles and cockroaches. When acanthocephales arise diarrhoeal disorders, pain in the abdomen, diarrhea. The diagnosis is based on detection of eggs acanthocephala in the faeces. Treatment is effective when applied extract male fern and santonin. Prevention - observance of personal hygiene, detection and treatment of patients acanthocephales animals.
Cm. also Helminthological research methods.

Acanthocephales (acanthocephaloses) is a parasitic infection caused by acanthocephala (koljuchegolovye), parasitic worms, occurring mainly in animals and is very rare in humans. Agents of acanthocephales are of type Acanthocephala. The body of worms flat, when committed in alcohol and formaldehyde deformed. The digestive system is not present, the power is osmotically, the circulatory system does not.
Acanthocephala - diclinous, in the stage of puberty parasitize all classes of vertebrate animals and humans. Development occurs with the participation of intermediate hosts, which can be molluscs, crustaceans, insects. Described the invasion of a person following acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (subspecies siciliensis and moniliformis) and M acracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus.
Moniliformis moniliformis siciliensis (synonym Echinorhynchus moniliformis). Male 40-45 mm, female 70-80 mm; width of 1-1,5 mm, body front narrowed, with a false beadlike segmentation; rear end of a smooth, proboscis has 14 longitudinal rows of hooks. Eggs 0,085 X 0,045 mm. In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestine mouse and garden Sony. Describes a person acting on Sicily. In the experience of self-experimenting researched Calandreta (S. Calandruccio) swallowed helminth larvae. After 20 days the experimenter have any diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, which sometimes took cutting in nature. 35 days in Calais were found eggs of scribnia. After taking 8 g ether extract of rhizomes male fern went 53 instance acanthocephala and 3 days later came a full clinical recovery.
Moniliformis moniliformis moniliformis. Male 40-86 mm, female 70-270 mm; width of about 2 mm; body often rolled into a ring, with a clear false segmentation beadlike forms; proboscis almost cylindrical, with 12-14 longitudinal rows of hooks, eggs 0,109-0,137 X 0,057-0,063 mm (Fig. 1). In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestine rodents (rats and other), American water mole, foxes, dogs, ferrets, some birds (Guinea and others). In the stage of larva parasite at cockroach Periplaneta americana and beetle-Cereteli. Kristoffersen (J. Christophersen) found helminth the person in Khartoum (Sudan), M. F. Mizgireva - in the USSR. In the latter case the child is 14 months. observed rapid, fluid, mixed with mucus stool; part acanthocephala stood out after the appointment of the extract of a fern, others fell away spontaneously.
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus - scribing giant. Male 100-150 mm, female to 300-650 mm; fusiform body shape, lined with deep furrows; proboscis almost round 6 spiral rows of hooks. Eggs 0,08-0,1 0,05 X-0,056 mm (Fig. 2).
In the stage of puberty parasitizes in the intestines of pigs and some other mammal, in the stage of larva - may-bugs Melolontha melolontha and Melolontha hippocastani. MR Skrinnik, M. Century Latinskaya and A. M. Ocheret found an instance of scribnia the chair of the patient after deworming senkatana about ascariasis. The patient within one and a half years, had nausea and vomiting. After removal of the helminth she recovered.
The main source of infestation when acanthocephales are animals - final owners of worms. The role of sick people miserable. The infection occurs when a person accidentally swallowed, insects (beetles, cockroaches) - intermediate hosts acanthocephala. Prevention is to combat acanthocephales in animals and observance of personal hygiene.