Acclimatization

Acclimatization of the person - the process of adaptation of organisms to new climatic and geographical conditions. A significant role in the process of acclimatization of the person plays the organization of work and life, adapting them to the local climatic conditions.
Physiological acclimatization is to develop an adaptive organism reactions aimed at maintaining normal functioning.
Acclimatization in a mountainous area. The main factors that negatively affect the body in mountainous conditions, are lower oxygen concentration in the air and barometric pressure. At the height of 2000 m above sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen in the air is sharply reduced and there are conditions for the development of oxygen starvation. In the first period of acclimatization at high altitudes, people celebrated the compensatory increase in the content of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells, increased pulmonary ventilation and minutes of the heart (see Adapting to the high altitude). These changes are intended to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood and are temporary. In the true period of acclimatization body tissues and their enzyme systems adapt to functioning at a lower pressure of oxygen in the blood. Comes rebuilding of tissue oxidation systems, and the need for compensatory reactions in the blood, breathing, blood circulation disappears. Therefore, permanent residents of the high-mountain areas (3000-4000 meters above sea level) is not observed such significant changes, which take place at the first rise on height. At higher altitudes, especially with the rapid rise may develop painful conditions syndrome mountain sickness (see Altitude sickness).
Acclimatization in countries with hot climate. The main factor affecting the organism in the conditions of a hot climate, in addition to high temperature, is the raised humidity of air. At high ambient temperatures, the heat loss by the body occurs only through sweating. In the conditions of hot dry climate released sweat evaporates and thermoregulation is not disturbed. Significant dust content of air, usually observed in arid areas, leads to cracking of the lips, conjunctivitis and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Gradually sensitivity to dust a little reduced.
At high temperature and high humidity evaporation from the surface of the body is difficult and thermoregulation significantly disrupted. There may be fever, increased respiration and heartbeat, redness of the skin with a relative decrease in blood supply to the internal organs. Especially amplified these phenomena with muscular load. There is also a thickening of the blood with decreasing content of ions of chlorine, potassium and sodium. One feels an unquenchable thirst and feeling of constant humidity of the body. These phenomena are fading away, but some people (especially with insufficiency of the cardiovascular system) acclimatization may not occur for many years. As acclimatization decrease the basal metabolic rate (10-15%) and blood pressure (15-25 mm RT. century), increases the effectiveness of sweating.
From pathological phenomena in hot climates may develop heat stroke (see), heat exhaustion with events collapse and a slight increase in body temperature, heat cramps (with a large loss of mineral salts). To prevent these phenomena and to speed up the acclimatisation of great importance device mode of work and rest to the local conditions. So, working day in countries with hot climate usually begins early and is divided into two halves with a long break in the hottest part of the afternoon. The meal is transferred to morning and evening hours. Especially the great value has a drinking mode: drink to the full thirst is recommended only after a meal and in the intervals - just to rinse the mouth. Have the value of the device for air conditioning (cooling and dehumidifying the air, and in the arid areas - spray water fountains and other
Acclimatization in the North. The main factors of the climate of the North, adversely affecting the body,low ambient temperature (in the winter months to -60 degrees) and violation of the light conditions (polar night and polar day).
In the initial period of acclimatization in the North there is a sharp change of reactivity of the organism. Thermoregulation is carried out mainly by chemicals - increased heat production by accelerating metabolic reactions, "loosened" specific to the body's usual level of equilibrium with the external environment (dynamic stereotype). Then there is a rearrangement of adaptive mechanisms. This process, especially for handicapped that are sensitive to fluctuations of meteorological factors (pressure, temperature etc) people may be accompanied by complications - disadaptation meteonovosti. They are expressed by excessive fatigue, irresistible sleepiness during daylight hours, reduced appetite, sometimes shortness of breath. There may be swelling magdesieva of papillae, bleeding gums - the phenomenon of deficiency of vitamin C. Violations of the usual light conditions (day and night) can lead to insomnia and neurotic States.
As acclimatization increases the importance of physical thermoregulation - increased blood volume expands peripheral vascular track, increases the amount of blood flow to the extremities.
Akklimatizirovannoi people in the North, as well as local residents, may take longer to carry cooling (for example, keeping the hand in ice-cold water), from them there is great "liveliness" of vascular reactions, so quickly there is a restoration of skin temperature after cooling. The period of full acclimatization usually develops within the first year of stay in the North, people of elderly, physically weakened - for several years. Development of acclimatization contributes to the training of the body to cold and therefore growing faster acclimatization have hardened, healthy people. To speed up and facilitate acclimatization in the North necessary correct catering, provision of adequate clothing, hygiene content of residential and public buildings, lighting, etc., the establishment of a regime of work and rest.
Calorie daily diet in the North should exceed the calorie intake for the inhabitants of temperate climate at 15 - 25%, and about half of the diet should be proteins and fats of animal origin. Given the important role of vitamins in the process of acclimatization in the North, it is necessary to provide all coming in the first 4-6 weeks daily intake of ascorbic acid on 250-300 mg, as well as vitamins a and D in the form of fish oil. The food of the population of Northern regions (especially children, adolescents, pregnant and nursing mothers) should work diligently to vitaminiziruet, particularly vitamins C, B, a and D.
Clothing in the North should be provided with a wind - and waterproof coating. The temperature of the air in homes and public buildings should be supported by 2-3 degrees higher than in the middle belt (see Housing). The intensity of artificial lighting during the polar night should be increased. During the polar day of the window in the bedroom should draw.
The great value has the correct alternation of work and rest, mass attraction to systematic physical exercise (especially swimming) and sports. Negative effect on the process of acclimatization alcohol, therefore, an appropriate explanatory work.


Acclimatization of the person is a complex socio - biological process of active adaptation of the human organism to unusual new environment, to its climatic and geographic conditions. During this process, the usual level of dynamic equilibrium of the organism with the environment ("dynamic stereotype" by I. P. Pavlov) is reconstructed in the direction of "balancing" the internal environment of the organism with the new environment, and on the level gradually established more or less stable acclimatization.
Physical-geographical environment, climate (see) are per person the Union of all the combinations of natural (soil, weather, space) factors, their continuous dynamics. In some atmospheric situations of individual meteorological factors (air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure) at their specific values can be purchased at the General climatic complex leading, essential for the body. On this basis are classified climates: cold, hot, humid climate of the tropics, the climate of deserts, mountain climate.
The action of physical-geographical factors connected with the influence of the social environment of the human condition that can mitigate this action to neutralize it, or, on the contrary, to burden the pathogenic influence of meteorological stimuli. Therefore, along with the medical selection and training and hardening of the physiological mechanisms of adaptation, the most important task is creation of scientific bases of the optimal living conditions for migrants (social A.).
Reactions A. there are complex reflex and neurohumoral mechanisms aimed at saving the life of the constants of the body (constant body temperature and other constants). The most important role is played by the persistence of body temperature by regulating heat production and heat loss (physical and chemical thermoregulation). Biological pattern that is common to man and animals, is the fact that the film adaptation cooling and heat, which are found in different natural conditions, and adaptation in artificial A. in the experiment is very similar (A. D. Slonim).
In the USSR the study of the problem A. widespread in connection with the realization of the ambitious economic plans of development of natural resources of the Arctic, new, uninhabited areas, the use of virgin lands, the transformation of nature in hot desert areas.
A very important issue is also the medical selection when travelling to work in a variety of unusual climatic conditions based on the anamnesis, constitutional features, state of the cardiovascular, respiratory and other systems.