The aktinomitinov

The aktinomitinov - antibiotics cytostatic action, produced by certain kinds of radiant mushrooms. There are more than 100 products of this group. The greatest distribution was received olivomycin (see), hrisomallis (see)used to treat some malignant neoplasms and diseases of the blood system. Usually the aktinomitinov injected; you can enter inside of cavities, directly in the tumor tissue, and apply externally.
In applying some actinomycin possible complications in the form of increased body temperature, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, education eritem and ulcers of the mucous membrane of the mouth, stomatitis, gingivitis, skin pigmentation.
The release form: capsules or hermetically sealed vials of dark glass. Keep aktinomitinov under lock (list a) in a cool dark place. Cm. also Antibiotics.

The aktinomitinov - group of the close on the chemical composition of antibiotics produced actinomycetoma - radiant fungus. Many of A. have antineoplastic properties, and therefore attract a great attention of experts.
Drugs A. have a red-orange color, toxic to animals. Describes over 100 aktinomitinov different physical-chemical and biological properties. For all A. characterized by the presence of molecules phenoxazone chromophore kernel associated with polypeptide chains. The composition of the chromophore: C-amino-1,8-dimethylisoxazole-(2)-dicarboxylic acid. In the polypeptide composition of the molecule contains many amino acids and in different quantities.
Most of aktinomitinov is a mixture of several substances. A. denote by Latin letters combined with Roman numerals. For example, actinomycin was established With 10 different connections: o, оα, Withоβ, I, Withα, With2, With, 3, 3A, 4; actinomycin X turned components: X0, X, X, XI, X, X2, X3, X4 , and so on, In many cases, these components were not allocated in a chemically pure form, but was determined by chromatographic parameters. To simplify the classification Waxman (S. Waksman) proposed to group aktinomitinov as follows: group I - AI, BI, X; group II - a AndII, II; group III - III, III; group IV - A,IV, BIV; DIV, C,I, I,I, XI; group V - AV, BV, X2; group VI - 2,; group VII - 3.
Producers A. belong to different species. First described in the literature was Actinomyces antibioticus, then Act. chrysomallus, Act. flaveolus, Act. parvullus, Act. parvus, Act. flavus, Act. michiganen-sis Act. achromogenes, Act. kitasawaen
sis and others, Each of them synthesizes the mixture components: for example, Act. antibioticus produces aktinomitinov groups a and b, Act. kitasawaensis - mixture of substances of groups A, Act. parvullus - mixture of substances of group D, Act. flaveolus - aktinomitinov group I, Act. griseus - A. group X, etc.
The aktinomitinov have pronounced the antibiotic action on gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria, fungi, yeast and gram-negative bacteria they do not act or the act on certain types and only at high concentrations. If staphylococci, micro bacteria and spore-coli bacteria are inhibited A. in doses of 0.01-0.02 mg/ml, fungi of Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes suppressed A. at doses of 0.2-0.5 mg/ml, and E. coli and many mushrooms - only at concentrations of more than 100 mcg/ml Power of action of different aktinomitinov different. Actinomycin X is much weaker than A. group or A (see table).
It is known that A. some have distinct antineoplastic properties. However, there is not enough experimental data to draw conclusions about the antitumor action of each of them. Many aktinomitinov effective in experiments on animals (mice and other), at the onset of malignant tumors. As with antimicrobial properties, there is a difference antitumor activity A. In recent years, much attention is concentrated on A. group C. in our country are tested in clinics A.: aurantis, hrisomallis and some others; noted their positive effect in some forms of tumoral diseases. A. highly toxic to animals and humans, and toxicity of different drugs are very different: LD50 (mice) in subcutaneous introduction A. group I to 8 mg/kg group IV - 1.0 mg/kg; group V - 0.35 mg/kg, etc. Antineoplastic effect is observed at doses several smaller doses of toxic, however, the gap between therapeutic and toxic dose is small. Cm. also Antibiotics.