Actinomyces (Actinomyces; synonymous with the streptomycete) - a special group of microorganisms to morphological features of bacteria and lower fungi, widespread in nature. A huge number of actinomycetes lives in soil, in water, on the rocks. They are all saprophytes.
Actinomyces are frequently found in the body of humans and animals on the mucous membranes of the mouth in the plaque teeth. However, with rare exceptions, these forms of non-pathogenic for humans and animals. Some actinomyces - agents of actinomycetes (see) is isolated from aktinomicose sites humans and animals.
The main forms of actinomycetes in structure broadly resemble mycelial fungi. Actinobacteria have a well-developed mycelium hyphae which is much thinner than that of mushrooms (0,5-1,2 microns, often 0,7-1,0 MK). Threads mycelium without transverse bulkheads, branching their monopodial, sometimes whorled. Actinomyces are not designed kernel. The composition of cell membranes, they are close to gram-positive bacteria.
Actinomyces grow well on many environments - synthetic mineral sources of nitrogen nutrition and complex, rich in protein. On dense nutrient media mycelium of A. greatly expands on the surface, the interwoven in dense colonies.
From the colony in the substrate departs substrate mycelium; on the surface of the colony grows aerial mycelium with pogonostoma-sporangiophores. Form plodnosti varies in different species A.: some they twisted with greater or lesser number of curls, others - straight or wavy.
In some species of actinomycetes spore branches are whorls or beams, the more likely they are sitting on a thread mycelium monopodial.
Spores are formed in two ways: by fragmentation or segmentation. In the fragmentation of protoplast spore branches crushed by 50-100 and smaller lumps with basophilic and nuclear material. Lumps turn into disputes, located in sporeasca a long chain. Repartioning pornosec divided by transverse bulkheads on short segments of the rod-shaped forms, which are rounded and converted into disputes. Shell dispute A. depending on the form of a smooth or rough, jagged, thorn, pilose. These outgrowths on the shell are visible only in electronic microscope.
Most of actinomycetes - mesophilous, but are common and thermopile. Almost all A. - aerofly. Many species A. form a different color pigments and chemical nature. Actinobacteria have a large and diverse set of enzymes that synthesize various substances and often release them into the environment in large quantities. Among many of these substances (vitamins, amino acids, carotenoids, toxins, hormones and others) have high physiological activity.
A. many form various antibiotics (see), such as streptomycin, tetracyclines, nystatin, chloramphenicol, oleandomitin, erythromycin, neomitina, monomitsin, mitomycin, aktinomitinov, rubomycin. A. produce antibiotics that suppress the immune Genesis and growth of certain cancer cells (see Aktinomitinov).
Many antibiotics of actinomycetes are widely used not only in medicine but also in animal husbandry and crop production as a means of combating infectious diseases and for feeding animals.
Classification A. poorly developed. A. split into separate clans and families. In addition kind of Actinomyces, the group radiant fungus include childbirth Proactinomyces, Mycobacterium Mycococcus, Micromonospora, Actinopicnidium, Actinosporangium, Streptosporangium and others, Actinoplanaceae. They all constitute a single taxonomic group Actinomycetales, or radiant mushrooms.