The activity of enzymes of blood serum

Animegame - determination of activity of enzymes in the serum is not a functional test of the liver. Finely reacting to pathological changes in the liver enzyme activity allows to evaluate the nature of liver damage and determine the aggravation of the progression of the pathological process, which often clinically apparent.
A number of enzymes, accelerating the progress of various biochemical reactions, reaches 200 (And, Pasynskii, 1963). With liver disease accompanied by increased permeability of cell membranes and dystrophy or cell necrosis, intracellular enzymes come in the blood plasma. This is due to the interest in the study of animarum with liver disease.
Among a large number of enzymes are the most studied and are of practical interest currently laninabina transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase.
Transaminases. Transaminases, or aminoferazy, tissue enzymes involved in the reactions of transamination of amino acids. Most of catalytically active two transaminases: glutamine-pyruvic transaminase levels (alanine aminotransferase), glutamine-savelovkaya transaminase levels (aspartate aminotransferase).
Glutamine-pyruvic transaminase levels (GCT) is found mainly in the liver cells and in small numbers in the cells of other organs. Glutamine-savelovkaya transaminase levels (GST) is contained in the liver cells and the cells of the heart and other organs (the A. F. of Bluger, 1964).
Concentration transaminaz in the serum of healthy people is constant. In diseases associated with necrotic processes, increases the concentration of one or both of these enzymes. The concentration increase transaminaz in plasma due to their release from necrotic cells (K. Bobek etc., 1959; Wrablewski, La Due, 1956). Other authors (Gavosto, Pasquinelli, 1958) explain the growth of enzymes change the biochemical functions of the cells of the affected organ.
Per unit adopted the activity of an enzyme needed for the formation of 1 microgram of pyruvic acid. The number of the latter is determined using spectrophotometric or colorimetric methods. The content GST in the serum of healthy people varies in the range of 8-10%; GCT - 5-30% (Reitman, Frankel, 1957). According to K. G. Kapetanaki, transaminaz few more: GST - 9-50 units; GCT - 6-40%
Numerous works devoted to determine transaminaz activity, show that of liver disease most pronounced growth of activity is observed in Hungary disease; prevails GCT. As the recovery activity transaminaz comes to normal. Long-lasting increase in transaminaz makes you think about the transition Hungary disease into a chronic form.
Liver cirrhosis is also observed increase in transaminaz dominated GST. Transaminase activity varies with cirrhosis in wide limits depending on the phase of the process, dramatically increases during periods of parenchymatous outbreaks. Comparing the dynamics of transaminases with the morphological study shows, in most cases, match the growth of transaminases with activation necrobiotic process (X. X. Mansurov, 1962; A. F. blue-ger, 1964). In some cases, severe hepatic insufficiency is reduced transaminaz, apparently, due to a sharp violation of their products.
Aldolase. Aldolase - fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is contained in the cells of the liver and other organs and muscles. Aldolase is the catalyst in carbohydrate metabolism.
The enzyme activity is determined by the number of split proctocolectomy and is expressed in mm3 or in units of optical density. The activity of aldolase in the serum of healthy people: Bruns, Puis (1954) - 5,4 mm3, Sibley, Lehninger (1949) - 4,9 mms, C. I. Towarnicka and E. N. Valuiskii (1958) - 3 - 10% of extinction, K. G. Kapetanaki (1963) - units 3-13 extinction.
In diseases of the liver, the activity of aldolase in the blood. The most pronounced increase in the number of aldolase at Botkin's disease. The value of this test is that the activity of aldolase grows clearly and Busselton, erased forms Botkin's disease (N. M. Karapuz, 1960; C. D. Sobolev, 1963; Bruns, Puis, 1954). Cirrhosis of the liver increased concentrations of aldolase less pronounced and is observed only when parenchymatous flash.
Alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase is formed in osteoblasts, as well as in the liver; contained in the cells of bile capillaries. Liver cells perform allocations phosphatase in the bile.
In healthy people alkaline phosphatase activity is 2-4 units (C. E. Baptist, 1960).
Diagnostic value of determination of alkaline phosphatase due to a sharp increase of its concentration in mechanical extrahepatic of obstruction of bile ducts due to violation of allocation phosphatase in the bile. A small increase in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase sometimes observed at Botkin's disease and chronic liver diseases. The increase in the number phosphatase in these cases, due to the impaired ability of liver cells to allocate phosphatase. A more pronounced increase in the number of alkaline phosphatase occurs in the presence of intrahepatic cholestasis. It should be noted that a significant increase of the content of alkaline phosphatase is observed in osteoporosis, bone tumours, rickets, giperparatireoidizm.
Cholinesterase. Cholinesterase that breaks down acetylcholine for acetic acid and choline, which is synthesized in the liver cells. Normal values cholinesterase activity of serum different depending on the method applied (C. E. Baptist, 1960; Todorov, 1968).
Liver disease cause a decrease in the activity of cholinesterase. At Botkin's disease and cirrhosis of the liver there is a certain parallelism between the severity of the process determined structural disorders, and the degree of decrease of activity of cholinesterase. Normalization of the concentration of the enzyme cannot serve as a criterion for the complete restoration of the activity of the liver, as such, is before the recovery of other abnormal values. The progressive decrease in the number of cholinesterase in the course of the disease Botkin is an unfavorable prognostic sign pointing to the possibility of developing hepatic coma (A. S. Karpovich-Agarkova, 1957; A. I. Amines, 1962; A. I. Khazanov, 1968). The number of cholinesterase plasma ranges in norm considerably and depends on many extrahepatic factors that significantly reduces the diagnostic value of this test.