Allergens cow's milk

Intolerance to cow's milk may be caused by a variety of violations of splitting or absorption of carbohydrates, fats or proteins, but hypersensitivity reactions to milk mainly due to protein components. Fats milk and lactose themselves do not have antigenic properties. However marketed drugs lactose may contain some amount of cow's milk protein; this fact should be taken into account, if after ingestion of lactose symptoms of Allergy. According to .Spies [11], he researched drugs lactose contained a small amount of milk proteins, as well as 4 other antigen-already known to milk proteins. However, not given proof of allergenic properties of these antigens. It is possible that the allergenic properties of milk proteins can be strengthened by non-enzymatic reactions (Maillard reaction) with lactose, resulting in linking N-glycosidic part of the sugar molecule protein [10, 12-14]. Patients with manifestations of atopy and elevated sensitivity to milk skin reactions to beta-lactoglobulin increased in 100 times after preliminary processing protein, lactose [13].
Cow's milk contains over 25 different protein components, which can cause the formation of antibodies in humans [15-18]. Using immunoelectrophoresis found that cow's milk contains many whey proteins [16-19]. Hinkle et al. [20] quite often observed positive precipitation adding bovine serum gamma globulin or albumin to human serum containing precipitin to cow milk proteins. Therefore, cow milk can be seen as a source of specific proteins, synthesized in the mammary glands, and whey proteins. Although the concentration of whey proteins in milk is low, they can be allergens and cause allergic reactions. Noted that gastrointestinal bleeding caused by the intake of milk, could intensify if, as antigen to use bovine serum albumin [21]. The allocation of immunological clean the serum protein fractions or milk - a process difficult, and therefore accurate estimate occur after ingestion of milk reactions antigen - antibody remains very difficult.
Exploring anaphylaxis in Guinea pigs, Ratner et al. [22] found that beta-lactoglobulin is more powerful allergen than casein or alpha-lactalbumin. Parish [23]using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in monkeys also noted that human antibodies were most often directed against beta-lactoglobulin. In sensitive to milk children serum IgE antibodies to a variety of protein fractions of cow's milk most often were also sent to beta-lactoglobulin [24]. Similar findings have been reported for examination of patients with allergies to milk after oral samples with different proteins of milk [25-30].
At inspection of 45 children with allergies to milk Goldman et al. [25] noted the emergence of reactions after oral samples with beta-lactoglobulin in 62% of children with casein - 60%, with alpha-lactalbumin - 53% and with bovine serum albumin - 52%; the reactions were similar to those that took place after the samples with the skimmed milk. Lebenthal [31], summarizing the results of the 5 papers [25-29], notes that the sensitivity to beta-lactoglobulin had 82% observed, casein - 43%, to alpha lactalbumin - in 41%, bovine gamma globulin - 27% and to bovine serum albumin - 18 % of patients. Skin tests also show that in the pasteurized and in raw cow's milk reactive component is concentrated mainly in the faction beta lactoglobulin [13, 32]. However, during the examination of a group of children, those suffering from lung diseases most often found precipitin to bovine serum albumin and gamma globulin, and not to casein, beta-lactoglobulin, or alpha-lactalbumin [33].
Based on the data on strengthening the allergenic properties of beta-lactoglobulin after its reaction with lactose [12], some authors suggest that in the process of digestion of milk protein antigen becomes more powerful allergen after interaction with a carbohydrate [14]. The amount of antigen that is causing positive intradermal reaction in persons with manifestations of atopy, reduced from 10 micrograms for crystalline beta-lactoglobulin to 0.1 micrograms for drug beta-lactoglobulin-lactose [8, 12].