Alopecia (baldness, baldness)

Alopecia (baldness, baldness) - diffuse (spread) or a limited loss of hair. Causes of alopecia: seborrhea, infectious diseases, endocrine, nervous and mental disorders, exposure to x-rays and other
There are the following forms of alopecia
1. Congenital Alopecia - congenital absence or thinning hair them, may also be combined with changes nails, teeth, skin. Is rare and may be a family affair.

alopecia baldness baldness
Some types of alopecia: 1 - alopecia; 2 - total; 3 - syphilis

2. Alopecia alopecia - complete loss of hair for dramatically limited areas of the skin, most often in areas of the scalp (Fig., 1), beard, moustache, rarely on the eyebrows and eyelashes, in axillary hollows. Alopecia alopecia more often in young and middle age. In children for more than favorable. Patches of alopecia are round or oval in shape, different size, number them from 1 to from 3 to 5 and more. Merging, patches of alopecia often form large pockets of irregular shapes. Skin lesions alopecia alopecia shiny, smooth, at the beginning of the disease follicular holes are visible, they later reduced. In the early stages of the disease hair, next to the border of baldness, easily removed. Disease duration from 2 months. up to 1.5-2 years. In malignant types of alopecia and alopecia (total alopecia) hair to fall out completely (Fig., 2); the disease long, as at the regional varieties of alopecia alopecia in which the hair falls in the marginal zone of the scalp (most symmetrically in the neck). Atypical form of alopecia alopecia is'll cut alopecia, which is krugovidnoe breaking of hair.
3. Alopecia premature, or presenilny,is hair loss in young and middle age, gradually, starting usually with frontal or parietal region. In various periods of time (usually several years) comes complete baldness or hair is still only around the edges of the scalp. On the ground of hair loss skin is shiny, thin, follicular orifice smoothed.
Women premature alopecia is expressed only more or less thinning hair.
4. Alopecia symptomatic develops as a consequence of various pathological processes (syphilis, lupus, skin tuberculosis, boils , and other)and also as a consequence of the defeat of hair mushrooms (microsporia, trichophytosis, impetigo and other). Syphilis alopecia is characterized by diffuse or small hair loss. In the latter case, the hair has a kind of fur that is moth eaten (Fig., 3).
Treatment. When alopecia alopecia applied corticosteroids (on recommendation of the doctor), vitamin B1 (5% solution of 2 ml intramuscularly, 10 injections) and a (50 000-100 000 ME a day), drugs bromine. Simultaneously appoint external funds (ointments with corticosteroids - prednizolonovuyu, oksikort and others), especially in the presence of seborrhea (see), ultraviolet irradiation. When premature alopecia - treatment of seborrhea, rubbing into the skin of the scalp annoying funds (2% resorcinol or salicylic alcohol), massage, irradiation erythermal doses of ultraviolet rays; vitamins a and B1. When symptomatic alopecia - treatment of the underlying disease (protevoepilepticescoe, antifungal and other).

Baldness (synonym: alopecia, alopecia, calvities). There are the following forms of baldness. Congenital baldness (alopecia congenita). Is rare; expressed a complete absence of hair or their betrayals. Often family and combined with other ectodermal dysplasia (nails, teeth).
Premature baldness (alopecia praematura). Occurs on the scalp in men aged 20-25 years; for women, the process is limited to thinning hair. First thinning hair are replaced by new ones, which are becoming thinner become tiny and consistently disappear completely. Hair loss begins with the parieto-frontal areas and a top. Ultimately remain covered with hair only marginal areas of the scalp. Premature baldness is more likely to occur as a consequence of liquid oily (see), but may be due to premature degeneration of hair arising as innate, often family suffering. The prognosis is poor. Still timely treatment of liquid oily and meticulous care, with the aim to improve the blood circulation in the scalp skin by rubbing annoying funds (2% resorcinol or salicylic alcohol and other), massage, exposure erythermal doses of ultraviolet rays, combined with the appointment of the interior of vitamin a, arsenic, can have a positive effect. Recommend an external application sexual hormones (sinestrol 0,25-1%, methyltestosterone - 0,25%) in the alcohol solution or cream. The proposed surgical treatment - cut tendons frontal muscle (pontelatone) or cut and partial excision of the aponeurosis (galeatomy), but its effectiveness is disputed.
Symptomatic baldness. Occurs as a consequence of severe acute infectious diseases, intoxications. Occurs acutely and leads to more or less thinning hair, at least - to complete baldness. Treatment: multivitamin, arsenic, high-calorie food, the rubbing of the skin irritating solutions, massage. Hair loss in AIDS - see Syphilis.
Alopecia baldness (alopecia areata). Starts suddenly with the appearance on the scalp of one or more small, round bald patches form, consistently slowly increasing in size up to 5-10 cm in diameter. In case of formation of several bald patches they can merge, forming large plots large-scalloped shape. The skin on bald areas have normal color, peeling is not observed. In the period of disease progression hair on the edges bald patches easily pulled or break off. Reaching a greater or lesser magnitude plots stop in its growth and in a few months (sometimes years) are overgrown. In some cases, growing hair at the beginning there are gray, later pigmentosa. In addition to the scalp, alopecia baldness can occur in the field beards, eyebrows, pubis, armpits. Especially persistent is the so-called marginal form (ophiasis)where patches of alopecia are located in the marginal zone of the scalp. In some cases, alopecia baldness, beginning with the formation of a separate bald patches, can lead to universal baldness with the loss not only of all long, but lanugo hair (total "malignant" alopecia). Sometimes a total baldness occurs immediately. It exists for many years and can be cured with great difficulty. As with alopecia and in total baldness by the cure often relapse. The disease can begin at any age, but most often seen in young.
Histologically around deep divisions follicles are marked inflammatory infiltrate and dystrophic changes nerveracking apparatus. The etiology is not installed. The most likely is neurotrophic theory. The immediate cause can be strong neuro-psychological and other traumas, focal infection. In some cases undeniable role dysfunction of endocrine glands (thyroid, pituitary, and others).
Treatment General, prescribe sedatives, vitamins (B1, B6, And C), arsenic. In appropriate cases, the use of hormonal therapy (sex hormones, tireoidin, and others). In total alopecia good effect gives prolonged use of pituitrin R. Corticosteroids and ACTH provide only a temporary effect. In some cases, gives a positive result radiation of x-rays (or diathermy) the cervical sympathetic nodes. Naruzhno to enhance blood circulation appoint rubbing variety annoying funds, massage, ultraviolet irradiation (erythemal dose). Treatment melatonina or domestic drugs - berksan, ammifurin (chemical analogues of Ammoudia - substances produced in SAR of plants Ammy majus), sensitizing skin to ultraviolet rays gives bleak results: growing hair again quickly fall out.