Mountaineering

Climbing - climbing the mountains with sports or research purposes. As a sport climbing originated in the Alps.
The movement in the mountains with cargo 20-25 kg, elevations and slopes of various steepness, overcoming obstacles (rocks, glaciers and others) are very high physical strain. It is complicated by mountainous climate (the lowering of atmospheric pressure, sharp fluctuations of temperature, wind and others). Reduced partial pressure of oxygen in atmospheric and alveolar air and developing hypoxia (see) is the main cause changes in the body during climbing to the height of C km and more. This will disturb the rhythm of breathing and shortness of breath, sometimes spasmodic breathing. The increase of pulmonary ventilation reduces content in the blood free CO2 - hypocapnia (see). The number of heartbeats alone is increasing and at the altitude of 5-6 km reaches 110-127V at 1 minutes; increases the minute volume of blood. As a compensatory reaction of the organism to hypoxia increases the activity of the blood-forming organs, increases the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin content. Oxygen debts during muscle work is eliminated more slowly, the blood levels of lactic acid and other non-completely oxidized products of metabolism increases, reserve alkalinity of the blood is reduced. Metabolic disorders (mainly fat). Reduced secretory and motor functions of the digestive tract, deteriorating appetite. Can be observed violations in the Central nervous system - the deterioration of sleep, fatigue, disturbance of the functions of analyzers (auditory, visual, and others), especially dangerous because of possible losses climber orientation. In severe cases, there is a set of symptoms of the mountain sickness (see Altitude sickness).
The degree of change in the body in high-altitude climbing depends on the height of rise of the level of adaptation to the altitude (see) and the total training of the climber (Fig. 1 and 2).
As the acclimatization violations are reduced. Especially effective active acclimatization (see), combining a stay of climbers at the height of the camp with exercise and training climbs. Despite the achievement of experienced climbers high degree of adaptation to the altitude, ascent to the top above the 6.5-7 thousand meters it is recommended to perform with oxygen devices.
Climbing brings up high-strong-willed qualities, develops strength and endurance, strengthens health, is a valuable tool physical education and recreation, conducted in healthy mountain conditions; stay in a mountaineering camp itself has a great Wellness is. However Alpine climbing have large requirements to the state of health, the General and special training of the climber, including ownership techniques climbing, driving on ice, insurance and other
Medical control (see) in the mountain climbing is of special importance. For climbing permitted healthy young men and women, as a rule, not less than 17 years old. For initial training in mountaineering camps may be sent physically developed teenagers 14-15 years. The full maturity of the body (23-24) required for participation in climbing to the top, more than 6.5 thousand m and other routes great difficulties; in the ascent valid participation of experienced climbers older (40-42 years and older). During the preliminary medical examination climbers should pay special attention to the condition of the cardiovascular system and the availability of training. Instructors and participants of mountaineering are subjected to detailed examination with the participation of the neurologist. In the camp of climbers are examined by a doctor upon arrival and before climbing. He is watching acclimatization the mountaineers, meals, organizing security climbing. Practice ascent usually begin not earlier than in 10 days for arrivals in the camp. The daily ration of the climber must contain at least 4500 - 5000 calories. The supply of power when climbing consists of concentrated products with reducing the amount of fat (not more than 150 g), and the increase of carbohydrates and vitamins B1 and C. To protect their eyes from bright light climbers needed glasses-canned.
In a special training program climbers includes training techniques provide to themselves and others, and transportation of the victim in the mountains.

Fig. 1. Change of heart rate of climbers in different periods of high mountain expeditions: 1 - breakers and the master of sports; 2 - the newcomers.
Fig. 2. Changes in hemoglobin in the blood climbers in different periods of high mountain expeditions: 1 - breakers and the master of sports; 2 - the newcomers.