Aluminium

Aluminum (Aluminium, A1) is a chemical element of group III of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Serial number 13, atomic weight 26,98, temperaturemelting - 660°, temperatureboiling - 2500 degrees. Air oxidizes, resistant to water. In small quantities is contained in the body (trace).
Drugs aluminum. In medical practice using drugs soluble and insoluble salts of aluminum.
The former include liquid Burova, alum, alum burnt. They possess astringent, cauterizing and bactericidal action, based on the ability of these salts to connect with proteins with education aluminates. For water-insoluble drugs aluminum include clay white, hydrate of aluminum oxide. They have adsorbing and enveloping effect, astringent and cauterizing properties have.
Liquid Burova (liquor Burovi) -8% solution of aluminum acetate. Used in breeding 1:10 or more to rinse, lotions, douches in inflammatory diseases skin and mucous membranes.
Alum (Aluminii et Kalii sulfas, Alumen) - dual sulfate salt of potassium and aluminium. External applied in water solutions (0,5-1%) for the same reasons as the liquid Burova, and also in the form pencils as hemostatic means at cuts. Alum burnt (Alumen ustum) is used to prisypok as astringent and drying tool (with the athlete's foot, etc.,). Hydrate of aluminum oxide (Aluminii hydroxydum, Aluminium hydroxydatum) is used as the absorbent and enveloping means externally in the form of powders and inside the high acidity gastric juice (see Antacids). Cm. also white Clay.

Aluminum oxidized in air, is resistant to water. Is the trace of the animal organism.
Drugs aluminium are divided into 2 groups. The first is soluble salts of aluminum with astringent, cauterizing and bactericidal action, based on their ability to connect with proteins, forming albuminates. From this group of drugs used liquid Burova, aluminum potassium and burnt alum. The second group of medications aluminium, not soluble in water. They have a high degree of dispersion and have adsorbing and enveloping effect. Astringent and cauterizing properties they possess. This group includes white clay (aluminium silicate) and hydroxide of aluminum.
Liquid Burova (Liquor Burovi) - 8% solution of aluminum acetate; used in breeding 1 : 10, 1 : 20 and more to rinse, wash, douches in inflammatory diseases skin and mucous membranes.
Aluminum potassium alum (Alumen) - dual sulfate salt of potassium and aluminium; applied topically in water solutions (0,5-1%) in the same testimony that and liquid Burova, and also in the form pencils - for cauterizing with trachoma and as hemostatic means at cuts (styptic pencils: aluminum potassium-alum - 20%, aluminium sulphate - 78%, calcium oxide -2%).
Burnt alum (Alumen ustum) is produced from aluminium and potassium alum by the removal of crystallization of water (heated); used to prisypok as astringent and drying tool (with the athlete's foot, etc.,).
White clay (Bolus alba) - aluminum silicate with a little touch of other silicates; designate as enveloping and means of adsorption. Naruzhno applied in the form of powders, pastes, ointments, with skin diseases, ulcers, oprelostyah, burns, etc., With gastrointestinal illness (colitis, enteritis) occasionally appointed interior from 20 to 100 g (adults). Also used as a constituens in the manufacture of pills and tablets.
Hydrate of alumina (Aluminium hydroxydatum, synonym alumina) is also used as an adsorbent and enveloping means externally for powders and inside the high acidity gastric juice (see Antacids).


Aluminium as industrial poison. Aluminium is produced from aluminium, mainly bauxite, ore. Very promising is the use of nepheline treatment and alunite, which are particularly rich bowels of the USSR. Aluminium production from ores is carried out in two stages: first, remove from ore alumina (Al2O3), and then from it - metallic aluminium.
In alumina production is widely used alkaline ways. Thus, workers are exposed to bauxite dust and dust alumina, and an increased concentration of alkaline aerosols, high temperature, humidity and radiant heat (C. A. Gavrilova and C. C. Miller).
Metallic aluminum is obtained by electrolysis of alumina dissolved in molten cryolite. Workers at that breathe air containing dust alumina. Also present a risk of exposure to hydrogen fluoride and sublimates pitch, high temperatures, intense radiation in summer and low temperatures in winter.
In the production of powders used in pyrometallurgy, pyrotechnics and as colorful powders, workers are exposed to aluminium dust. Fine metal aluminum in high concentrations forms with air explosive mixture. The alumina dust released into the air when the smelting of bauxite in the production of artificial corundum. Inhalation of dust aluminum metal and oxide occurs dust pulmonary fibrosis-aluminas (see Pneumoconiosis). Aluminas was obtained and in the experimental conditions at intratracheal introduction to white rats aluminium dust. However, many authors on the basis of clinical and experimental studies deny the possibility of the development of Luminosa. These contradictory messages about the activity of aluminium should be explained by the different properties of the dust of aluminium - the presence or absence on the surface of its particles of the oxide film A., different values of surface dust, their sizes, and other
Some authors consider that a is practically non-toxic. Dust aluminium and dural irritates the mucous membranes of eyes, nose and mouth. The workers involved in the production of aluminium powders, frequent catarrh of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis), with an increase of the experience increases the proportion of atrophic forms. When tiny wounds and cuts the skin penetration of small particles A. and dural leads to long not healing purulent the pustules with significant compaction of the tissue around it.
Maximum permissible concentration to spray aluminum, oxide, A. and its alloys in the air of working premises - 2 mg/m3. The manufacture and use of abrasives and in the production of A. electrochemical method (electrolysis room) are obligatory preliminary and periodical (1 every 12 months) medical examinations.
At survey of workers of electrolysis workshops special attention should be paid to the signs of chronic fluoride intoxication.