Ambulance

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Ambulance in the USSR is a special service in the system of outpatient care for the population, providing emergency medical assistance and, if necessary, and transportation of the sick and injured to hospitals.
There is a unified system of emergency medical aid, which is implemented stations and emergency aid.
The area of emergency medical care and the rules for its call are set by the Department of health and approved by the Executive committees of local Councils of people's deputies. Stations and emergency departments send medical personnel in case of accidents, poisoning, attempted suicide and murder; when sudden life-threatening diseases (see Vital indications); childbirth occurred on the street or in public places, as well as birth at home without medical assistance. In all these cases, ambulance crews are required to travel not later than 4 minutes after receiving the call.
In addition, medical staff ambulance is sent for transportation to hospitals patients on applications doctors (acute appendicitis, strangulated hernia, intestinal obstruction, perforated ulcer of the stomach and intestines, ectopic pregnancy, uterine bleeding, heart attack and other diseases that require urgent surgical or therapeutic treatment), as well as for transportation of childbirth and the puerperium normal birth. The emergency medical assistance organize the transportation of infants, including premature infants, together with his mother in specialized medical institutions and patients, hospitalized in a planned manner that health need in transportation of sanitary transport.
The emergency medical service to provide medical assistance, but do not have systematic treatment of patients, staff stations has no right to grant sick leave forensic medical expert opinion (for example, establishment of alcoholic intoxication), as well as any written reference to the patients or their relatives.
In the volume of urgent events held directly at the scene, in addition to diagnosis, the provision of first-aid - giving oxygen injection and others), is conducting activities on prevention of shock, pulmonary and other life-threatening the patient conditions, as well as activities aimed at the safety of its transportation to the hospital. Practical therapeutic measures on rendering emergency medical aid - see articles on individual diseases, as well as the table "Urgent therapy for diseases of internal organs," "Emergency treatment with surgical diseases" (Annex).
For an immediate specialized aid directly at the scene and in transit organized specialized brigades, which allows to provide patients and victims with qualified medical help, to expand the volume of care in the provision of emergency medical care and to combine shipment treatment of patients.
There are specialized teams for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease, shock and terminal conditions for provision of psychoneurological help. In many major cities on the basis of clinical and city hospitals, centres for combating thromboembolic disease, with shock and terminal States, specialized infarction Department which receives patients in critical condition, bypassing admissions departments.
Specialized brigades are to call the ambulance and in some cases (when there is a special decision of the local health authorities) on request of district doctors.
Staff specialized teams directly in the machine produces urgent intervention (blood transfusion, stop bleeding, tracheotomy, artificial respiration, cardiac massage and others), and also performs the necessary diagnostic studies (an electrocardiogram, the definition prothrombin index, the duration of bleeding and others).
To perform the complex of urgent interventions and diagnostic studies cars, which go brigade, equipped with the necessary equipment and medicines.
The expansion of the volume of medical aid at the scene and transportation allowed to reduce deaths in the delivery of the sick in hospitals, significantly reduce the number of complications and mortality rate of patients with thromboembolic disease.