There are amenorrhea physiological, artificially induced and pathological.
The complete absence of menstruation occurs when a high degree of infantilism, when stopping the development of genital organs in intrauterine life, when malformations of the uterus and ovaries.
Physiologically, the absence of menstruation occurs before puberty, after the onset of menopauseduring pregnancy and are more or less long time in the period of breast-feeding. More than half of lactating women are not menstruate for approximately 5-6 months after childbirth; for longer feeding most women menstruation resumes.
On the border with pathological amenorrhea are those cases, when it develops under the influence of heavy physical work, in the absence of women any diseases as a General nature and are located in the genital area. Thus, in pre-revolutionary time, many peasant woman in summer during heavy field work had absolutely no monthly, while in winter, the menstrual function restored in their absolutely normal form. It should also be noted that the inmates of the Far North monthly physiologically missing during the long polar winter and restored only with the advent of Sunny days.
Absence of menstrual periods is observed frequently in women in times of war. This form of amenorrhea is the result of lack of food proteins, fats, vitamins, and mental state of women (anxiety, agitation, severe concerns and so on). This form of amenorrhea, different in duration, is usually without any treatment in the postwar period.
Psychological effects may also play a role in the emergence of amenorrhea (fright, fear, and so on).
Artificially induced amenorrhea comes as a result of surgery (removal of the uterus, ovary), after radiation therapy, taken about diseases of internal genital organs. Amenorrhea can result from too much scraping mucous membrane of the uterus, after prolonged use cauterizing substances, injection of iodine or after such delicate issues, as the Stripping endometritis.
The cause of pathological amenorrhea can be different agynecologist disease. For example, sometimes amenorrhea is an associated symptom of various diseases, metabolism (obesity, diabetes, graves ' disease, and others). Amenorrhea may occur also on the soil of debilitating diseases (typhoid fever, severe nephritis, scarlet fever). Of particular importance tuberculosis, which amenorrhea occurs due to the General exhaustion and destruction follicular unit of the ovary and atrophy of the mucous membrane of the uterus. Early dementia is often accompanied by amenorrhea; often accompanied amenorrhea epilepsy and addiction and manic and reactive States, on the contrary, often accompanied by bleeding.
Amenorrhea is also observed in tumors, and in benign tumors amenorrhea is observed only in those cases when tumors develop in both the ovaries and entail the complete destruction of follicular unit of the ovaries. A malignant tumor can lead to amenorrhea even in cases where affected one ovary or other organs.
Urinary and intestinal fistulas usually accompanied amenorrhea; after the closure of the fistula amenorrhea disappears. Causes of amenorrhea with fistula are still unknown; it is possible that the main role here belongs neuropsychiatric aspects.
Finally, one should not forget about cases of so-called false amenorrhea, when the menstrual blood is not allocated to the outside, and delayed in one place or another during sexual canal because of Sardinia it (see above).
Symptoms amenorrhea have a great resemblance to the so-called phenomena drop observed in extinction of ovarian function (menopause). In the lungs, soon passing cases of amenorrhea any significant subjective symptoms are usually absent; in severe cases, often in the foreground fatigue, disinclination to work, feeling of heaviness and pressure in the pubic joint pain and heaviness in the sacrum, the sense of heat, noise in the ears and so on, Rarely, the so-called "vicar of menstruation", i.e. bleeding from Other bodies: nose, throat, lungs, bloodshot eyes, skin. In some cases, amenorrhea followed by menstruation, in which blood is allocated very little (hypomania) or menstruation appears over long periods of time (oligomenoree).
Treatment for amenorrhea must be directed against a disease that caused it. For example, at a tuberculosis of lungs, severe suppurative processes, diabetes need to treat the underlying disease, with the elimination of which is held and amenorrhea. Mild cases of amenorrhea, with a duration of no longer than a few months and not accompanied by atrophy of the uterus, usually do not require treatment. Difficult to treat the patients, who had come atrophic process in the womb.
When events underdevelopment important measure is timely (at school) the purpose of the exercise, which is contributing to the development of the organism as a whole, can contribute to the development of the genital organs. We should not forget about the importance in such cases, nutrition and stay in the fresh air.
In amenorrhea caused by hypofunction of the ovary, therapeutic measures should be directed to the strengthening of ovarian activity. In such cases it is shown physiotherapeutic procedures (the cure, diathermy, electrotherapy)and hormones (estrogen, a hormone yellow body).