The amino sugar

The amino sugar - derived sugars (glucosamine, galactosamine, hexosamine), gidroxizina group which substituted amino group (NH3). Many of the substances, which are composed of amino sugar, possess high biological activity (heparin, gamma globulin , blood, some hormones , and others).

The amino sugar - monosaccharides in which one or more hydroxyl groups substituted amino groups. The nomenclature of amino sugars comes from the root of the corresponding monosaccharide, to which is added the word "Amin", such as glucosamine (2-aminoglikozida, the formula C6H13O5N), galactosamine (2-aminoglikozida, the formula C6H13O5N), etc. amino sugar derived of hexoses, called hexosamine. The amino sugar have all the properties of amines (see): are strong grounds form a stable crystalline salt with some acid. As free base A. unstable, so they should be stored in the form of salts (for example, clorhidrato). A. and their salts are soluble in water. For amino sugars characterized by the typical reaction of carbohydrates: acylation, alkylation, oxidation, restoration, increase and shortening of the carbon chain, and so on, unlike conventional Sugars derived A. have shown an increased stability to action of acids. General method for the synthesis of 2-amino sugars based on the interaction of monosaccharide with hydrocyanic acid and ammonia, resulting A., chain which extended on one carbon atom. The amino sugar are components of mucopolysaccharides (see), mukoproteidov (see), gangliosides and other biologically active polymers included in various tissues, blood, milk, saliva, etc., In living tissues most found glucosamine (part of chitin, heparin, hyaluronic acid) and galactosamine (part of chondroitin sulphate). To determine A. in hydrolysates tissue using color reaction Morgan - Elson: sour hydrolysate neutralize and heated with acetylacetone, then the sample add n-dimetilaminobenzaldehidr and again heat. The emergence of intense cherry colour indicates the presence of A.
Interfere with the determination of amino acids. Cm. also Monosaccharides.