Amines

Amines - derivatives of ammoniain which atoms of hydrogen replaced by organic radicals. There are aliphatic amines (methylamines, ethylamine, Propylamine and so on) and aromatic (aniline, toluidine, xylidine, diphenylamine, battellini and others); depending on the number of substituted in the ammonia molecule of hydrogen atoms - primary, secondary, tertiary (for example, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine); the number of amino groups in the molecule amines - monoamines (above), diamines, [Ethylenediamine, hexamethylenediamine were, parafoil Indiamen (Ural)] and poliaminy.
In natural conditions amines formed during decomposition of nitrogen-containing substances in animals (biogenic amines). Many of them have strong biological effects (tyranny, serotonin, histamine).
Amines are used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, in the production of plastics, dyes, insecticides, etc. Used in the production of amines may cause both acute and chronic poisoning.
Acute poisoning. Inhalation of vapors aliphatic amine - sharp irritation of mucous membrane of the eyes, upper respiratory tract, General arousal disorders of respiration; in severe poisoning - cramps, swelling of the lungs, liver, kidneys; in contamination of skin is burned. Poisoning aromatic amines occur by inhalation of vapors and their penetration through the skin. Symptoms of acute toxicity: weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, staggering gait, sharp blueness of the skin, in severe cases, mental arousal, convulsions, reduced body temperature, heart disorder. May come a coma, paralysis, and death.
First aid: remove victim to fresh air; if contaminated skin wash the body of water (not hot), change your clothes. Assign full peace, inhaling oxygen or Carbogen, according to testimony - heart funds; if breathing has stopped - artificial respiration, injection lobelina (1 ml of 1% solution).
Chronic poisoning aliphatic amines shows decreased body weight, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, headaches, heart disorder, kidney, liver. In some cases, there may be allergic diseases. Under the action of aromatic amines are marked weakness, malaise, headaches, changes in the blood (a reduction in the content of hemoglobin, the number of red blood cells), digestive disorders, liver failure and kidney failure, unstable function of the cardiovascular system, mental disorders. Described allergic diseases. Some amines (benzidine, naphthylamines) can cause malignant tumors. Treatment - translation work that is not related to occupational hazards, symptomatic treatment.
Prevention of poisoning: mechanization of production processes, sealing equipment, effective ventilation. Preliminary and periodic medical examinations. PPE - filtering gas mask, protective clothing (gloves, sleeves, boots). After a shower and a change of clothes. Cm. also Aniline.

Amines - ammonia or ammonium hydroxide, formed by the substitution in these compounds hydrogen atoms in organic radicals. In a molecule of ammonia could be replaced by radical (In) one, two or three atoms of hydrogen and hydroxide ammonium - four atoms hydrogen and get amines following four types:
The nature of radicals associated with the nitrogen atom, Amines are divided into fatty amines (for example, methylamine), aromatic (for example, aniline) and heterocyclic series (for example, aminopyridine). Diamines contain two, and poliaminy several amino groups with different carbon atoms.
One of the most common methods of synthesis of fatty amines series is based on the interaction of ammonia with guidapromozioni:
Amines aromatic series get almost exclusively on a method of N. N. Zinin - recovery-nitrocompounds: RNO2 + 6H →RNH2 + 2H2o
Methylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine - gaseous substances, higher A. - solid, insoluble in water substances, odorless. A. all have the properties of bases and able to form salts with acids.
In the process of biological inaktivirovanie A. important role belongs to the reaction of oxidative deamination. This reaction is catalyzed by a monoamine oxidase, oxidizing monoamines, and diaminoxydasy, or histaminase, oxidizing histamine and other diamines. Under the action of these enzymes amines turn into aldehydes:

Produced by deamination A. aldehydes quickly undergo oxidation in the corresponding acids that have pharmacological activity.
In natural conditions amines formed from the amino acids in the process of putrefactive cleavage of the protein by bacteria. Education And - in humans and animals by decarboxylation of amino acids:
RCH (NH2) COOH → RCH2NH2 + CO2.
This process is catalyzed by decarboxylase, under influence of which from pharmacologically relatively inert amino acid histidine, tyrosine, and others) are formed amines, strongly affect the body (tyramine, histamine and other).
Tyramine (beta-n-oxygenisation) found in extracts of ergot, the rotting animal tissues, Mature cheese; has the Pressor effect, which is due to its ability to release from the bound state norepinephrine.
Histamine (beta-imidazolidinone) causes the expansion of capillaries and fall of blood pressure. Introduced from the outside, stimulates the function of digestive glands and tone smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. The preferential localization - the fat cells and tissues of the basophilic cells. In normal conditions is associated inactive state. The release of large quantities of histamine at some effect leads to pathological disorders. Applies histamine to determine secretory capacity of gastric glands and as a medicine when joint and muscle rheumatism and arthritis.