Ammonia

Ammonia formula NH3,is a colorless gas with a characteristic smell, irritation of mucous membranes. Is found in small quantities in the soil, air, water. Ammonia is highly soluble in water. 10% ammonia solution is called ammonia (see). Attaching ion of hydrogen molecule of ammonia to form ammonium ion NH4, which is part of ammonium salts.
In the body of ammonia is one of the products of nitrogen metabolism (see). Ammonia he is neutralized in the vertebrate, turning into urea; part ammonia is used in the process of neutralization of strong acids.
Ammonia is used to obtain nitric acid, nitrogen-containing fertilizers, soda, varnishes, paints, etc.
In high concentrations with long-term exposure to ammonia causes vasodilatation skin, blisters and sores. At hit of ammonia in the eyes occurs photophobia, conjunctivitis, in severe cases - changes in the cornea. Inhalation of ammonia causes burning pain, choking cough, spasm of the glottis, irritation of mucous membrane of the larynx and trachea, lung edema.
First aid in case of poisoning ammonia: washing of mucous membranes of the victim 2% solution of bicarbonate of soda, inside codeine or dionin, intravenous 10 ml 5-10% solution of chloride calcium and 20 ml of 40% solution of glucose, inhalation of oxygen (long); for the prevention of pulmonary edema - in bed with constant monitoring of the victims. With the defeat of eye - rich washing them with water, burial 30% of a solution sulfatsil-the sodium, the ages of 30% of sulfatsila ointment.
Prevention of poisoning: sealing of production processes and equipment, the device of shelters and local exhaust ventilation, the air supply to the workplace in the form of air showers, take remote control of production processes in a separate room.
Individual protection - filtering respirator, protective glasses.

Ammonia (NH3) is a nitrogen with hydrogen. Colorless gas with a pungent odour; in nature is formed by decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic substances (see Decay; in the form of tracks contained in the air, in the waters of the rivers, lakes, seas and soil waters. In the tissues and fluids of the human body contains 0.01 to 0.1 mg% of ammonia. Weight of 1 L. A. if temperature is 0 degrees and a pressure of 1 ATM equal 0,7713 g, at a pressure 8,46 ATM and temperature 20 degrees A. condense, forming colorless, highly refracting light liquid with temperature instrumentation. the 33.4 degrees; °square A. -77,8 degrees. Liquid ammonia is a good solvent; after contact with skin causes severe burns. A. very well soluble in water (700 A. volumes 1 volume of water at a temperature of 20 degrees), worse in alcohol, chloroform, benzene. In the table the correlation between the density of aqueous solutions A. and contents A.
When dissolved ammonia formed in the water hydrate NH3H2o Along with this small part of molecules A. (0.4% in 1 M solution) takes hydrogen ions from water molecules. As a consequence, water solutions A. have a weak alkaline reaction (pH 1 M solution at 1 degree of 18 degrees is equal 11,77). A. completely removed from water solutions at heating.
With the Foundation properties, A. readily forms salts with acids, such as
NH3 + HCl = NH4Cl,
where the role of metal plays a monovalent radical NH4, called ammonium. Many ammonium salts that are soluble in water (with heating and decompose acids with ammonia. Chloride and ammonium carbonate is used in medicine for the preparation of medicines, has expectorant effect.
In the technique of A. used to produce nitric acid, nitrogen mineral fertilizers, soda, and others are used In medicine aqueous solutions A. different concentrations called ammonia (see).
A. is part of the liquid ointments. 0,5% aqueous solution of A. used for washing hands before surgery.
About A. role in metabolism - see Nitrogen metabolism.
At high levels in air A. produces smothering (maximum permissible concentration of 0.02 mg in 1 liter of air). First aid in case of poisoning A. - fresh air, oxygen inhalation of acetic acid. Quantitatively A. define titration of solutions being studied by the standard solution of sulfuric acid or kalorimetricheskim with nessler's reagent (alkaline solution mercury potassium iodide, K2HgJ4), forming with A. coloured (yellow or red-brown) connection. A. as industrial poison - see Nitrogen.