Suspended animation

Suspended animation - the state of a sharp slowdown of life processes, in which there are no visible signs of life. In the basis of the phenomenon of suspended animation is dehydration (without breaking the protein structure). Biological importance of suspended animation adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. In the experiment proved the possibility of suspended animation in microbes, fungi and other organisms by freezing them at t-269 degrees and awakening when moving in favorable conditions. The phenomenon of suspended animation is used in the manufacture of live dry vaccine, the preservation of tissues for transplant, long-term preservation of strains of microorganisms.

Suspended animation (gr. anabiosis - recovery from ana - again and bios - life) - the state of the body at which the processes of life is so slow that no visible manifestation of life. Suspended animation observed a sharp deterioration in living conditions (low temperatures, lack of moisture, and others); upon occurrence of the same favorable conditions in organisms, fallen into a state of hibernation, there is a restoration of vital processes. A typical example of suspended animation at drying is the so-called hidden life of seeds of many plants that can dry to keep germinating capacity of 50 years. Suspended animation in animals was opened A. Leeuwenhoek (1701). Invertebrates - Hydra, worms, barnacles, aquatic and terrestrial mollusks, some insects and vertebrates amphibians and reptiles can lose 1/2 and even 3/4 enclosed in a body of water, falling into a state of suspended animation, and then come to life again.
If the process of dehydration goes with violation of living structure of the protein, it denaturation (clotting), and then restore the vital processes becomes impossible. P. I., the machine and the number of Soviet researchers have established regularities characterizing suspended animation during freezing insects and mammals. Experiments have shown cooling insects and other small animals to t OC 90-160 degrees and sperm of the rabbit to the temperature-78-183 degrees, the revival of the animals that had fallen into a state of suspended animation, comes only when tissue fluid remain at a low temperature in the freezing, i.e. liquid state. This allows for instantaneous water transfer into the vitreous amorphous mass, resulting protoplasm is not destroyed. The formation of ice crystals that destroys the cell structure and protein molecules, the recovery is impossible.
The phenomenon of suspended animation during drying and low temperature widely among microorganisms. The most resistant to drying, cooling and heating of spore-forming bacteria, and fungi. Spores of anthrax Bacillus many years not lose viability nor when the soil is dry steppes and deserts, or in the frozen soil of the Arctic tundra. Many bacteria that do not form spores, endure long cooling to a temperature below 0 degrees, that allows to distinguish their pure culture of corpses and other objects, which under normal conditions develops and another microflora. Rack for drying and cooling of some species of pathogenic filterable virus. The phenomenon of suspended animation in the drying and cooling are used in the manufacture of dry live vaccines, the continued strains of bacteria, viruses and cells of tumors, the preservation of tissues for transplantation. When saving microbes, dried, together with the special environment at a low temperature, immunizing properties of vaccines not lost in the months and even years. Pure cultures of the virus also keep the long term in dried and frozen tissues susceptible animals.