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The analysis of modern concepts of alcoholism

The considerable prevalence of alcoholism in most countries of the world makes earnestly seek and try to explain the causes of alcohol abuse. There are many different perspectives and concepts related to the etiology of alcoholism. A. Grotyan in the beginning of XX century wrote that alcoholism has a biological and social aspects. Medicine came only with the first aspect of the problem of alcoholism, and open the influence of alcohol on the human body, but it was completely untenable in investigation of the reasons of alcoholism, because of these reasons are rooted in the conditions of social life.
Some authors see the reason of alcoholism in the alcohol. "The primary and the simple reason thrust person-to-alcohol - wrote 3. A. Gurevich, and A. 3. Zalewski in 1930,lies in its euphoric effect, i.e., precisely in the fact that alcohol is able to create a mood of pleasure". Alcohol makes people more at ease, he starts to believe that he can easily overcome all difficulties and life's troubles. This condition, according to the authors, and often serves as the most powerful impetus to the use of alcohol. Point of view on alcohol as an etiologic factor of alcoholism exists or not understood at the present time when, as one of the measures of fight against alcoholism offer prohibiting or restricting the sale of alcohol and organize all kinds of temperance societies.
However, the majority of domestic and foreign authors believe that alcoholic drinks are not the main etiological factor of alcoholic disease. Most people drink alcoholic beverages, separate groups of people abuse them, some developing an addiction to alcohol. These interrelated aspects of the problem of alcoholism are determined not only and not so much because of the alcohol, how many the person and the conditions of his life. Many domestic and foreign authors identify the social, genetic, psychological and physiological factors in the etiology of alcoholism.
Considering the different concepts etiology, alcoholism, can be divided into two main groups of causes contributing to the development of alcoholism: causes, caused by abnormalities of the personality and the characteristics of the organism, the individual's hereditary, constitutional, exchange, psychological and other); the reasons laid down in society.
The most extensive literature on the first group of reasons. It is devoted to various anomalies personality: genetic, metabolic, constitutional, mental, psychological, etc. According to some authors, these determine the development of addiction to alcohol. Among supporters of these theories can be called R. Williams (1947, 1949), N. Baruk (1.950), that is, Jellinek (1960), G. Winokur et al. (1970) and others From the domestic scientists this point of view was held by F. E. Rybakov (1910), P., Gannushkin (1933), S. G. Zhislin (1935), I. I. Lukomsky (1960, 1965, 1970) and others In the majority of works attempts to establish a direct causal link between premorbid personality characteristics and misuse of alcohol, to describe the personality of potential alcoholics".
That is, Jellinek (1960) believes that the abuse of alcohol predisposed "not sufficiently organized" personality, not able to cope with anxiety and tension socially acceptable ways. He believes that the lower organization of the subject, the more the need for artificial relief in his state with the help of alcohol. But for the occurrence of chronic alcoholism, in addition to alcohol abuse, according to E. Jellinek, and physiological (including hereditary) predisposition.
E. Hoff (1961) believed that suggestibility, vulnerability, anxiety, inability to practical life, childishness predispose to alcoholism. F. Laubental (1964) believes that the favorable ground for alcoholism are personality "of weak will", impetuous, with labile mood, constitutional depression, infantile, seeking recognition. According to M. Glatt (1967), for the vast majority of people suffering from alcoholism and drug addiction, specific emotional immaturity, a desire to escape from reality, the instability of the hardships, unable to tolerate them and combat stress.