Analyzers

Analyzers - sensitive nervous system entities engaged in the analysis and synthesis of changes in the external environment and in the body.
According to I. P. Pavlov analyzer consists of three departments: peripheral, i.e. perceiving (receptor, or sense organ), intermediate, or block (pathways and intermediate nerve centers), and the Central or cortical (nerve cells of the cerebral cortex). To the peripheral Department analyzers include all the senses, as well as the receptor of education and free nerve endings located in the internal organs and muscles. The receptor apparatus of each analyzer is adapted to the transformation of energy of a certain kind of irritation in the nerve excitation (see Receptors). In the cortical Department analyzer nervous excitement becomes a sensation. The activity of cortical part provides adaptive reactions of the organism to external environment changes.

Analyzers - sensitive system (afferent) nerve structures, engaged in the analysis and synthesis of the phenomena of the external and internal environment of the body. The term was coined in the neurological literature I. P. Pavlov, according to the views which each analyzer consists of specific perceiving formations (see Receptors, the senses)that make up the peripheral Department A., the relevant nerves connecting these receptors with different floors of the Central nervous system (conductor part), and brain end, presents the higher animals in a bark of the big hemispheres of a brain.
Depending on the receptor functions distinguish analyzers external and internal environment. First receptors addressed to the external environment and adapted to analyze the phenomena occurring in the world. Such A. include visual, hearing, skin, olfactory, gustatory (see Sight, Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste). A. internal environment - the afferent nerve devices, receptor apparatus which are located in the internal organs and adapted to the analysis of what is happening in the body. These analyzers is also motor (receptor apparatus it presents muscle spindles and receptors Golgi that allows precise control of the musculoskeletal system (see Motor responses). A significant role in the mechanisms statokinetic coordination plays and other internal parser - vestibular, closely interacting with A. motion (see Balance of the body). Motor A. a person and includes a special Department for the transmission of signals from receptors of the speech organs at the higher floors of the Central nervous system due To the importance of this Department in the activity of the human brain, it is sometimes considered as "recidivating analyzer".
Receptor apparatus A. each suited to a transformation of a certain type of energy in nervous excitement. So, the receptor of sound selectively react to sound irritated, light - light, taste, and chemical, skin - on tactile-temperature etc. Specialization receptors provides the analysis of the phenomena of the external world on their separate elements at the level of the peripheral section A.
The most complex and subtle analysis, differentiation and subsequent synthesis of external stimuli are carried out in the cortical departments A. Method of conditioned reflexes in combination with extirpation of brain tissue shown that cortical departments A. consist of nuclei and trace elements.
At destruction of the nuclei is broken subtle analysis, however, still possible rough analytical-synthetic activity due to the dispersed elements. This anatomical and physiological organization provides a dynamic and high reliability features A.
Biological role of parsers is that they are specialized in tracking systems that inform the body of all the events happening in the environment and within it. From the huge flow of signals continuously coming to the brain for internal and external parsers, selected the useful information that is significant in the processes of self-regulation (maintain optimal, constant level of functioning of the body) and active behaviour in the environment. Experiments show that complex analytical and synthetic brain activity, determined by the factors of external and internal environment, by polyanalyticity principle. This means that all the complex neurodinamical cortical processes that form the overall activity of the brain is composed of a complex interaction of analyzers (see Higher nervous activity).