The toxoid

Pages: 1 2 3 4

As already noted, in the basis of the pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease is a toxic factor in the development of immunological reactions leading role toxoid.
The merit of introducing in the Soviet Union intoxicatiei when staphylococcal infections belongs to academician G. Century Vyhodceva (1939).
According to the available experimental and clinical observations, the toxoid is more effective in comparison with the dead and live vaccines, and if you compare them with staphylococcal filtrate. One part toxoid when introduced into the body gives impetus to the formation of such a large number of antitoxin, which is able to neutralize the dose of a toxin, a million times greater than the amount entered. The stability of the immunized animals to staphylococcal toxin corresponds to the level of antitoxin in the blood of these animals. A toxoid is prepared from various highly toxigenic strains that are most immunogenic (toxin about a month is under the influence of formalin at a temperature 39-40 degrees C).
Therapeutic effect is mainly due to the increase in blood staphylococcal antitoxin that can neutralize the toxin. In addition antistafilococica under the influence of native toxoid formed antigenotoxic and antihomotoxic (in vaccinated patients, their levels in the blood are pretty much). The formation of a variety of antivenoms is not to the same extent. Comparison of titles antigialuronidasy and alpha-antitoxin in the blood of patients and healthy people showed that different antibodies accumulate independently from each other and with varying intensity. In patients with various forms of staphylococcal diseases are not treated with the toxoid, in the recovery process also observed the increase of antitoxin.
The growth of antitoxin titers in the dynamics of the disease is of great diagnostic value. High titers persist until six months after the drug and only by the end of the first year come to their original values.
Active immunization donors antitoxin is accompanied by increased content in the blood serum alpha-antitoxin and staphylococcal agglutinins.
In addition to the immunological properties, toxoid has desensitizing effect. Beneficial effect toxoid during staphylococcal disease is expressed in reduction of intoxication, improvement of granulation wounds, reduction of terms of healing, faster disappearance of symptoms.
Efficiency toxoid was proved in thirties. However, the discovery of sulfa drugs and antibiotics and faith in their eternal omnipotence contributed to oblivion many immunological preparations, including Staphylococcus toxoid. Only a strong rise staphylococcal diseases and often unsuccessful treatment with antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs again attracted the attention of clinicians to intoxicatiei.
We must assume that any newly discovered antibiotics will not give grounds doctors to exclude from the complex treatment methods of immunotherapy. Increased protective-reactive properties of the organism has always been and should remain the main task for the treatment of infectious diseases.
In recent years, the toxoid is used for a variety of staphylococcal lesions (in particular, sepsis, enterocolitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, empyema, lung gangrene, abscess, phlegmon, carbuncles, gidradenit, infected burns, lymphadenitis, mastitis, chronic purulent inflammation of the middle ear, when multiforme exudative erythema).
Mostly after treatment has been favourable outcome of the disease, which it was impossible to achieve with other medicines.
Now applies purified toxoid, adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide. The development of immunity after the introduction of antigen depends not only on quantity, but also from the date of effect of the drug on the body. This is due to the high antitoxin titers after the introduction of drugs deposited in the state.