The toxoid

The toxoid (toxoid) - biologically active product obtained by neutralization of bacterial toxins impact of formalin with temperature 39-40 degrees (the way Ramona) or in other ways. The toxoid has specific antigenic and immunogenic properties of the source of the toxin and acquires new - safety, stability. The most important property of the toxoid is immunogenicity, that is, the ability to cause the development of immunity in humans. The most high immunogenicity for tetanus, diphtheria, botulinum toxoid.
A toxoid is used for immunization tetanus, diphtheria and other diseases. In addition to pure preparations, use of the Association toxoid with other antigens: for example, associated diphtheria-tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and other Cm. also Immunization, Toxins.

The toxoid (Anatoxinum; from the Greek. ana - vs + toxin; synonymous with toxoid) - harmless derivative toxin, which under the action of formalin and heat lost completely the toxic properties of the source of the toxin and kept antigenic and immunogenic properties.
A toxoid is absolutely harmless, irreversible (no chemical and physical impacts cannot return to the original drug toxicity). A toxoid is a very durable (transfers repeated freezing and thawing, well resists high temperatures) has been very stable during long-term storage. Antigenic properties toxoid (i.e. suitability for active immunization) are determined by the reaction flocculation (see) and content flocculosa (antigenic) units (Lf) in 1 ml of the preparation. Efficiency (e.g. diphtheria toxoid) is proved by numerous experiments on animals and the results of the study of immune system in children and adults immunized with this drug against diphtheria.
Native diphtheria toxoid should contain no less than 20 Lf 1 ml. now instead of native diphtheria A. for active immunization against diphtheria use purified adsorbed diphtheria A. Introduction the person diphtheria A. in most cases is not accompanied by undesirable reactions to the vaccine. The lower the age vaccinated, the less there is vaccination reaction" (within 24-48 hours), in terms of the increase of temperature up to 38.5 degrees and in poor health. The use of diphtheria toxoid for active immunization against diphtheria significantly reduce the incidence. The effectiveness of the active immunization against tetanus tetanus A., proved its advantage over seroprotective tetanus.
Affecting the bacterial toxins specific concentrations of formaldehyde and maintaining the toxin when temperature 37-40 degrees and in the course of time required to complete treatment and disposal of transition toxin in A., managed to get the drugs used for specific prophylaxis and treatment of a number of infections. These are toxoids staphylococcal, botulinum, dysentery, A. from toxins produced by pathogens gas gangrene, toxoids from the venom of some poisonous snakes, A. from abrina.
Currently, A. purified from the ballast of protein and other nitrogenous substances, applied concentration of specific antigens in smaller quantities. The most common methods of processing anatoxinum are settling native A. neutral salts (ammonium sulphate), salts of heavy metals, precipitation acids (hydrochloric, trichloroacetic, metaphosphoric) when isoelectric point and deposition using ethanol and methanol at low temperature, etc., In result it is possible to get drugs which their antigenic and immunogenic properties considerably surpass the original native toxoids. Received a number of associated purified concentrated adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide A. used for simultaneous immunization against several infections: associate diphtheria-tetanus A. for active immunization against diphtheria and tetanus, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine for simultaneous active immunization against these infections. Immunization adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid is twice subcutaneously at doses of 0.5 ml, with an interval between them in 30-45 days with primary re-immunization, which is an injection of 0.5 ml of the drug in 6-9 months. Subsequent reimmunization children produce a dose of 0.5 ml of the preparation. Cm. also Toxins.