Human anatomy

Anatomy is the area of morphology. Anatomy studies the human body systems (systematic anatomy). Accordingly, it consists of several sections: the doctrine of the bone system - founder; the doctrine of the connections of the bones, joints and ligaments - sindesmology and arthrology; the doctrine of the muscular system - epidemiology; the doctrine of the vascular system - angiology; the doctrine of the nervous system - neurology; the doctrine of the senses - estesiologia. Anatomy of internal organs is highlighted in a special section - splanchnology. Systematic anatomy complemented topographic, or regional, describing first the spatial relationship of the authorities, which is of special interest for surgery. The study of the structure of the organism to the naked eye is the subject of macroscopic anatomy. The use of a microscope enables you to examine the thin structure of the bodies of microscopic anatomy. The term " normal anatomy" difference it from pathological anatomy, which examines changes of organs and systems from diseases. Important phase in the study of body composition analysis, accompanied by thorough description, descriptive anatomy). The study of the structure of the body in dynamics in connection with the functions defines the content of the functional anatomy, special section, which is an experimental anatomy. Features of the structure of the body and organs in the process of individual development of an organism explores age anatomy. Plastic anatomy, study the external shape and proportions of the human body, is of great practical importance for the fine arts. Comparative anatomy systematizes the data on the anatomy of animals to identify existing in the evolution of human anatomical features.


The history of anatomy

Structural features of the man

Founder (the study of the structure of the bones)

Sindesmology (the study of the compounds bones)

The epidemiology (the study of the muscles)

Splanchnology (the doctrine about the internals)

Cardioangiology (the study of the cardiovascular system)

Neurology (the study of the nervous system)



Estesiologia (the doctrine of the touch devices)

Modern anatomy accumulated the material lifetime structure of organs obtained using fluoroscopy and radiography (x-ray anatomy).

This section of the website is a textbook on human anatomy in pictures. It sets out the questions on the history of anatomy, General questions, the structure of the musculoskeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital systems and glands of internal secretion. We set out the structure of the cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, the Central nervous system with the pathway, peripheral nervous system, head nerves, autonomic nervous system, the organs of sense. Material organized according to system principle, each section marked functional and topographitscheskyi features, organogenesis, age peculiarities, anomalies of development, provides a comparative anatomical data. Anatomical Atlas illustrated colour pictures and schemes.

The present manual "human Anatomy" is designed for students of medical institutes and corresponds to the curriculum. This tutorial is presented in such a way that the original understand the specific issues then embryological and phylogenetic data. In many sections contain information on age, topographic and functional peculiarities of the authorities. Cited in other textbooks summary of the blood supply and innervation in this manual are omitted due to the fact that during the examination of the internal organs students are still unfamiliar with the structure of the blood and lymphatic system, and nervous system. Such material is useful for doctors and shall be in the manual or at least in the textbook topographic anatomy. In this book chapters on bones, ligaments and muscles, stated briefly, the structure of the internal organs - in more detail. This is because the doctor in the practice often faced with diseases of internal organs.
The manual has a lot of illustrations that help learning. Naturally, the purpose of education is not memorizing many anatomical terms that without proper reinforcements eventually completely forgotten, and the understanding of the General plan of structure of a person. Anatomy is part of biology, so the structure of all the organs, systems, living organism as a whole, are in the aspects of their development and functional relationships. The study of human anatomy with the correct methodological positions from the first days exploring the medicine should facilitate the formation of a materialistic ideology and doctor, as anatomy, along with biology, histology, physiology, pathology and biochemistry is the Foundation of theoretical training. Like any science, anatomy includes issues of practical importance, important for clinical medicine, biological questions, we need to expand medical horizons and is needed in order to answer the question: "How is man?" There is an opinion that human anatomy supposedly difficult. Our knowledge about the most perfect and wonderful creation of nature as people today still incomplete, but, as history shows anatomy, they were even more primitive 2000-3000 years ago. And if on the path of cognition of human structure lot achieved, it is only through the mind of a man in his curiosity. Once scientists were happy if they could look into the womb of being, their own kind, but now, calling upon the latest achievements of applied and fundamental Sciences, they reveal molecular combination and know his own nature. On these tracks are many difficulties and many joys. The knowledge of the structure of a person is an internal need of the student, who dedicated his life to the most noble cause - the deliverance of mankind from sufferings, had chosen the profession of the doctor, which since ancient times requires a person to bestow the whole moral and intellectual forces.

Internal organs
As mentioned above, internal organs provide vegetative (vegetable) the functions of the body, i.e. feeding, respiration, excretion of products of metabolism and reproduction. We will get acquainted more with their structure and activity, and also with certain conditions, necessary for normal work of these bodies. The motion apparatus Blood, lymph, cardiovascular system Regulation of body functions

The content of anatomy

Man has undergone a complex biological evolution and combines with the biological side of natural and historical - social creature. Its structure and functions are fully biology and social laws. Anatomy of the person belongs to the biological Sciences. Human anatomy is the science that studies the origin, development, external and internal structure, features a living person. Human anatomy aims description form macroscopic structure, topography bodies, taking account of sex, individual, constitutional features of the organism, as well as the phylogenetic (from phylon - rod, the genesis - development) and ontogenetic (ontos - individual) moments of development. The study of human structure is carried out from positions of the entire organism. Anatomy attracts and anthropological data - Sciences about the person. Anthropology considers a person not only age, sex and individual characteristics, but also racial, ethnic, professional, social studies of influence, explains the factors that determine the historical development of man. Thus, biology sees the person with evolutionary standpoint that plays a role in the formation of a materialistic worldview of the Soviet doctor.
Human anatomy has an important practical value for medicine. Anatomy with histology, physiology, biochemistry and other disciplines is the basis of theoretical knowledge in the preparation of a doctor. A prominent physiologist Ippavlova noted that only by understanding the structure and function of organs, we can correctly understand the causes of diseases and the possibilities of their elimination. Without knowledge of the structure of the person it is impossible to understand the changes caused by the disease, to establish the location of the pathological process, to conduct surgical intervention and, therefore, properly diagnose the disease and to treat patients. On this occasion 170 years ago very vividly expressed one of the outstanding Russian doctors E. Mukhin (1766-1850): "the Doctor is not anatomist not only useless but harmful." When in the period of scholasticism and influence of religion (XIII century) doctors have forbidden to open the corpses and learn at least the basics of anatomy, knowledge of doctors were so primitive that the public demanded the Church permission to autopsy.
What is the content of anatomy? The term "anatomy" comes from the Greek word anatemnein - cut, dissected. This is because the first and the main method of investigation the man was a method of division of a corpse. Currently, when a researcher is attracted to the knowledge of the internal and external structure of a living person, many other techniques, anatomy does not correspond to the content of its name. However, now for the description of the structure and topography of the authorities applied the preparation of the corpse, which is one of the methods for the study of form and shape. However, the structure of the bodies and their functions can be known only when the combination of many methods.
1. Using the method of anthropometry can be measured growth, the relationship of parts to install body weight, the Constitution, individual peculiarities of the person, his race.
2. Method of preparation of possible cut in layers of fabric with the purpose of their study and the highlight of the surrounding tissue and fiber muscles, blood vessels, nerves and other entities that are visible to the naked eye. This method allows to obtain data about the shape of the bodies, their relations.
3. Injection method are filled with colored weight, divorced with drying oil, kerosene, gasoline, chloroform, ether, or other solvents the body cavity, the lumen of the bronchial tree, intestines, blood and lymph vessels. The method was first used in the XVI century. For injection are used and hardening masses in the form of latex (liquid rubber, polymers, molten wax or metal. Due to the method of injection were largely expanded knowledge about the structure of the vascular system. Method of injection has been particularly beneficial in cases where made subsequent corrosion, enlightenment of organs and tissues.
4. Method of corrosion first used by Svammerdama (XVII century), and in Russia - I. Century Bujalski. The body with blood vessels, filled with hardened mass, immersed in warm water for a long time was stored in it. The surrounding tissue rotted and could only cast hardened mass. This process can be accelerated when tissues are destroyed concentrated acid or alkali that is used at present. Using the method of corrosion can see the true shape of the cavity, where he joined the mass. The disadvantage is that the mould cavity is not interconnected with the tissues.
5. Method of enlightenment. After dehydration of tissues, the drug absorbs the liquid. In this case, the refractive index impregnated fabric close to the refractive index of the liquid. Injected blood vessels or painted nerves will be visible at such a relatively transparent drugs. The advantage of this method over the corrosion is that in enlightened drugs remains spatial arrangement of blood vessels or nerves.
6. The microscopic method, which uses a relatively small increase, currently widespread in anatomy. Thanks to the application of this method was able to see education, which cannot be detected on histological sections. For example, the method of microscopic anatomy revealed network of blood and lymphatic capillaries, intraorganic plexus blood vessels and nerves, clarified the structure and form slices, acini, etc.
7. Methods of x-ray and x-ray possible to study in vivo form and functional features of organs from a living person. These methods are successfully used in the study on the corpse. Very widely in clinical practice and experiment uses a combination of injection of contrast agents followed by x-rays. Due to this contrast more clearly distinguished on the screen or printed on x-ray film of the study of education.
8. Radiographic method of reflected rays mainly applies to a live person, for example for the study of blood capillaries of the skin, mucous membranes (capillaroscopy), vessels of the retina.
9. The method of endoscopic studies allows using instruments inserted through natural and artificial hole, consider painting, relief agencies and mucous membranes.
10. Experimental method in anatomy is used to determine the functional value of the organ, tissue or system. It allows you to set the plasticity of the tissues, their resilience, etc. via experiment you can obtain a lot of new data on the restructuring of organs and body in response to external influences.
11. Mathematical method is often used when anatomical studies, because unlike other methods, it allows us to derive more accurate quantitative indicators. With the development of computer technologies, mathematical methods take an important place in morphological studies.
12. Method illustration apply to broadcast accurate documentary images or create schematized images of anatomical structures. Accurate anatomical data can be documented by photographing with the subsequent manufacture of photographic prints or black-and-white or color transparencies (slides), which are projected on the screen. The preparation of many anatomical structures, especially those in different planes, it is impossible to photograph. In these cases, is accurate sketch of the drug. Sometimes you must create the schema. The creation of anatomical diagrams due to the fact that no pictures, no exact figures do not convey the internal architecture of the body, such as the structure of the glands, topography pathways in the brain and spinal cord and other Schematic drawing is the most complex form of preparation of illustrations. This complexity is due to the fact that the schemes are based on data obtained by the methods of preparation, histological, histochemical and electron diffraction and experimental studies and clinical observations. Synthesizing data of many methods, you can create schematic drawings.
In anatomical studies currently widely used and filming, especially in the documentation of moving objects. By this method it is possible to document the sequence of opening and preparation of a corpse, topographic anatomic data. Method of filming can clearly show the functional disturbances in experimental studies: the movement of blood, lymph, urine, saliva, the function of musculoskeletal system and other
13. Method of ultrasonic scanning is relatively new and is still insufficiently used in anatomical studies. Currently used in clinical practice to identify the topography and forms bodies under pathological conditions, the provisions of the fetus in the womb, the relief of the cranial cavity and the spinal canal, purulent cavities, if Echinococcus bubbles, stones biliary and urinary system, and sometimes the tumor sites.
14. Method of holography is used for producing three-dimensional image of an object using laser beams. Is a new methodological direction in the technique of scientific research and will play a significant role in the development of morphological Sciences.
The most important requirement of science based on the principles of dialectical materialism - the study of things and phenomena in their origin and development with the use of historical method. Lenin pointed scientists that things should be viewed from a historical point of view, " ... to Approach the issue from the point of view of science,is not to forget the main historical ties, look at each question from the point of view of how well-known phenomenon in the history occurred, what are the main stages in its development, this phenomenon was held, and from the point of view of this development to watch than this thing has now become" a historical approach used materials anthropology, paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, which allows the study of the human socio-public, since the complex evolution actively adapt to the nature and changing their psychophysiological characteristics under the influence of social conditions of society.
Human anatomy methodically can be studied in different ways: on certain systems (systematic anatomy); describe only the external form of man (plastic, or relief, anatomy); to study the structure of organs and systems, depending on their functions (functional anatomy); study the relative positions of the systems and organs with the age and individual characteristics (topographic anatomy), to study the structure of the bodies in different age groups (age anatomy).
Systematic anatomy mainly lays out the form, structure, topography, age peculiarities, individual differences, development and anomalies, phylogenetic features on individual systems. Such approach to the study of anatomy most suitable for those not familiar with the subject, because the complex is decomposed into its constituent parts.
Plastic anatomy contains information about the external forms of the body, which are determined by the development of bone, protruding mounds and ridges, apparently through the skin, contours muscle groups and muscle tone, elasticity and skin color, depth of her folds, the thickness of subcutaneous fat. The state of internal organs studied only in this volume, to show how this is reflected in the external structure. Plastic anatomy has practical importance not only for artists and sculptors, but also for doctors, as external forms, you can judge the person's state of health.
Functional anatomy complements these descriptive anatomy. The aim is to study the structure of the organs and systems in unity with the function of considering the human body dynamics, revealing the mechanisms of restructuring forms under the influence of external factors.
Topographic anatomy studies the structure of a person on some areas, the spatial correlation of organs and systems, taking into account individual and age peculiarities. The elements of topographical anatomy necessarily accompany the systematic presentation of material.
Age anatomy studies the structure of the person in different age periods. Under the influence of age and external factors with a certain regularity of changing structure and form of human organs.
In children of the first years of life, adults and the elderly, there are significant differences in anatomy. In clinical practice even have an independent discipline, for example Pediatrics - the science about the child, geriatrics - the science that old man.
Together with descriptive anatomy of the human need to learn (at least in General terms) the anatomy of invertebrates and vertebrates - comparative anatomy. Based on the data of comparative anatomy is possible to understand the evolution and development of living beings. In comparative anatomical data and embryology, which sets out mainly at the stage of organogenesis, manage to find a common signs that contribute to understanding the history of human development, its organs and systems.