Anatomical nomenclature

Anatomical nomenclature (Nomina anatomica) - a set of anatomical terms.
The Romans borrowed a number of anatomical terms from Persians and Egyptians, putting the staple of Greek terminology. In the middle ages widespread Latin terminology, as the Latin language during many centuries served as the only means of scientific communication. In the heyday of Arab culture and in the Renaissance anatomical nomenclature was replenished with new terms in connection with the development of anatomical studies. The number of anatomical terms increased more and because individual researchers describe a new item, sometimes gave her every its particular designation. Often one and the same item was called by different names of the researchers who discovered it. This is all very complicated systematization and presentation of anatomy.
The first attempts to organize anatomical terminology were made in the 18th century, when Dumas (Dumas, 1797) proposed to designate the muscles of the terms that indicate the start and the attachment and Henle (F. G. Henle) and Owen (B. Owen) introduced the terms that define the position of the body relative to pass through the body axis, planes and directions, which greatly facilitated its description. Important role in the study and interpretation of anatomical terms played Girl (J. Hyrtl), has created the most valuable work "Onomatologia anatomica" (1880).
In 1887 initiative brown (W. Braune) and GIS (W. His) at the meeting of the German anatomical society in Leipzig, the question was raised about the fix anatomical nomenclature. In 1889 established a Commission of the German anatomists, headed by Chelicera (K. A. Kolliker) and Krause (W.. Krause). At the same time the society of American and British anatomists also worked to improve the list anatomical terms.
In 1895, at the Congress of the Anatomical society in Basel adopted the first unified anatomical names, dubbed Basel anatomical nomenclature (Basler Nomina Anatomica, s. BNA). Its authors adhere to the following principles: 1) each part should wear one name - Latin, possibly short and simple; 2) it must contribute to a lasting memory, but not to be a description or explanation; 3) own names when names are in parentheses. BNA contained 5600 terms. With the introduction of the BNA anatomical terminology was largely orderly, although they kept a number of shortcomings semantic and linguistic nature.
Over the years the work on the improvement and systematization of anatomical terms continued. In 1933, was published a list of terms, revised Anatomical society of great Britain and Ireland (British Revision). In 1935 in Jena German anatomists approved the new list of terms that are included in the literature as Jena anatomical nomenclature (Jenaer Nomina Anatomica, s. JNA). This anatomical nomenclature was not widely spread.
In 1950 V international Congress of anatomists in Oxford decided to establish the International anatomical nomenclature Committee (International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee, s. IAN). The Commission took as the basis for creating a new international nomenclature BNA. His project international anatomical nomenclature Commission presented the VI International federated Congress anatomists in Paris at its final meeting on 30 July 1955, Congress passed a new item and assigned it the name Paris (Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia, s. PNA). In the USSR a new international nomenclature was approved by the Plenum of the all-Union society of anatomists, histologists and embryologists in June 1956
In the PNA - 4286 terms carried over unchanged from BNA, and more than 200 new, introduced in the Chapter on Central nervous system, as well as in connection with the specification of the anatomy of the lungs and their blood vessels.
Some terms BNA excluded from the list. PNA has two appendices: the first contains a list of paths, beams and fibers of the brain and spinal cord (IA) and the list of kernels and other entities of the gray matter of the Central nervous system (IB); the second is a comments 366 terms. In the list of anatomical terms the following changes were made: 1) the number of terms BNA fixed or replaced; 2) the terms ventralis and dorsalis, cranialis and caudalis saved mainly for items in the area of trunk; 3) eponyms not included in the nomenclature; 4) synonyms saved only approximately 20 anatomic formations; 5) some are not used in classical Latin terms are excluded, introduced the term valva because of the wide application of derivative of the word; 6) listed the names of the authorities opened, following the publication BNA (gl. parathyreoideae, sinus caroticus); 7) the input terms segmental anatomy of the bronchi and blood vessels of the lung; 8) the glands highlighted in a special section; 9) the spleen is placed at the end of section angiology; 10) embryological terms saved, some of them refined and corrected.
In 1960, at the VII International Congress of anatomists in new York city adopted the additions and corrections to the PNA: 80 changed and made 104 new term, fixed a number of errors made permutation more than 50 terms. Also decided to exclude all diphthongs, to destroy all the hyphens between vowels in the middle of words; words margo and paries be considered as words importing the masculine; calyces, calyculi, etc. to write calices, caliculi. Established subcommittees for the unification of terms on histology and embryology and preparation of lists of terms in these subjects for consideration at the next Congress. Currently, the PNA is growing in our medical literature and teaching in medical institutions.
On creation of the Russian anatomical terminology worked M. I. Shein, N. M Ambodik-Maksimovich, P. A. Zagorsky, N. A. Valuev, P. P. Deacon, B. N. Vorobyov. Great value for the study and interpretation of anatomical nomenclature in our country was published in 1928 Dictionary anatomical terms" P. I. Karuzina. In 1949, on the V all-Union Congress of anatomists, histologists and embryologists discussed the question of creation of the Soviet anatomical nomenclature in Latin and Russian. Its development has paid great attention D. A. Zhdanov, M. F. Ivanitsky, G. F. Ivanov, A. N. Maksimenkov and a number of other anatomists.