Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology - the doctrine of anesthesia, providing vital functions of the body and protect it from the harmful effects of (hypoxia, intoxication, reflex influences and others) before, during and after surgery.
Anesthesiology in our time going through a period of rapid development. Develops and find more and more wide application of various ways of influence on the activity of the organism in the preparation and conduct of operations. About the success of anesthesiology, allowing to perform the most complex of surgical intervention are described in the brochure.
The section is aimed at students of medical institutes and medical workers.
The main task of modern anesthesiology - ensuring the safety of the patient at all stages of surgical treatment by preventing or reducing the body's response to injury and his restoration of impaired functions.
Due to modern methods of anesthesia and intensive care unit became possible realization of the most complicated surgical interventions on the lungs, heart, brain, stomach, and so on, Anesthesiology and the resuscitation distinguished from other clinical disciplines inherent methodological principles. Main from them - temporary artificial management functions of vital organs, primarily breathing and circulation.
Anesthesiology and reanimatology) located on the borderline of different disciplines: normal and pathological physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, surgery, therapy, obstetrics, etc., Without the methods of anesthesia and intensive care it is impossible to imagine not only the specialty surgical profile, but also a modern therapy, neurology, obstetrics and so on
Today we can proudly state that anesthesiology and reanimatology) occupy the forefront of science, and in this essential role played two important circumstances. First, the Soviet anesthesiology and reanimatology) absorbed all the achievements of Russian science in the field of pathophysiology, surgery, therapy, pharmacology. N. I. Pirogov, f, I. Inozemtsev, A. M. Filosofische, A. A. Kulyabko, S. K. of Klikovich, F. A. Andreev and many other local researchers known not only in our country but also abroad. Secondly, the rapid development of new sections of surgery, therapy, such related subjects as pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, stimulated the birth specialty designed to provide care to patients in emergency circumstances leading to the development of critical States.
The main content of anesthesiology and resuscitation Department is the management body functions in acute situations. Thus, the subject of anesthesiology and critical care medicine is applied clinical pathophysiology of all acute conditions associated with surgery, injury or disease of the Central nervous system, circulatory and respiratory system, endocrine system and so on
Practice makes highlight the anesthesiology and reanimatology) in three major sections: 1) anesthesiology; 2) intensive therapy; 3) reanimatology).
Anesthesiology. This Chapter examines methods of protection of an organism from operating injury. Surgical intervention is aimed at the recovery of the patient. However, it can cause some unwanted side effects (shock, impaired electrolyte-water balance and acid-base balance, and so on), which may pose a threat to the life of the patient.
In General anesthetic management of the operated patients is as follows: assessment of the status and preparation of patients for surgery, conduction anesthesia, prevention and treatment of complications during surgery and in the immediate postoperative period.
Intensive care - system of measures aimed at the prevention or correction of violations of vital functions of organism sharply arising heavy conditions (large volume of surgery, blood loss, injury, cardiogenny shock, and so on).
Therapeutic measures aimed at maintaining the proper level of hemodynamics, gas exchange, the composition of the internal environment of the organism, prevention of neurological disorders with the help of infusion therapy, targeted drug therapy, etc.


Critical care medicine is a branch of medicine that studies and develops methods of dealing with clinical death, termination or partial disruption of blood circulation, of respiration.
Resuscitation is engaged in restoration of the lost and the normalization of the disordered functions of vital systems of the body. It includes activities ranging from relatively simple and casual, aimed at improvement and stabilization of the organism, true to restore vital functions lost as a result of severe complications or overvoltage compensatory mechanisms in emergency surgery, trauma or acute surgical diseases.
Thus, those born within the walls of the surgical clinic of anesthesiology and reanimatology) went outside and came into close contact with other medical specialties - therapy, neurology, toxicology, obstetrics, Pediatrics , and so on, However, we should not forget that the way of development of the Soviet anesthesiology and resuscitation are closely linked first of all with surgery. Moreover, many Soviet anesthesiologists came mainly from the surgical clinics.
The founders of the Soviet anesthesiology and resuscitation was known Soviet surgeons (C. S. Yudin, A. N. Bakulev, L. K. Bogush, A. A. Vishnevsky, E. N. Meshalkin, B. C. Petrovsky, P. A. Kupriyanov, I. S. Zharov and others).
Important role in the development of anesthesiology and intensive care in our country have played a Century A. Negovsky, E. A. Damir, N. M. Sadykov, I. M. Darbinyan, and others. Abroad in the development of anesthesiology contributed C. Bernard, A. K. Bier, N. F. W. Broun, P. Keclus and others. The first anesthesiologist-professional considered G. Snow (1813-1858).
Anesthesiology and reanimatology) in the USSR for a short time reached a high level. Achievement of the Soviet anesthesiology should recognize the security of all species existing in the world practice operations, including the duration of cardiac operations under artificial circulation.
Important role in the training of highly qualified personnel in our country has had a Department of anesthesiology and critical care medicine, pulmonary surgery Zaliv, the Military medical Academy. S. M. Kirov, and the laboratory of anesthesiology and resuscitation VNZH AMS of the USSR, the Institute of surgery. A. Century Vishnevsky Institute of cardiovascular surgery after. academician A. N. Bakulev, I and II MMG, the all-Union oncological centre, Academy of medical Sciences, all-Union cardiology center of the AMS of the USSR.
In the USSR the number of doctors-anesthesiologists is more than 7000. In 1966, in the USSR there was established the all-Union scientific society of anesthesiology and resuscitation (WEAR). Printed organ WEAR is the journalof Experimental surgery and anesthesiology".
Anesthesiology, we repeat, is now a vast and rapidly growing area of medicine. We shall stop only on some aspects of the work of anesthesiology at the surgical clinic.

As they grow, anesthesiology contributed to the progress of all branches of surgery (especially of thoracic surgery of the heart and large vessels), expand the scope of surgical intervention, a significant reduction of contraindications to operations for the patients.
New horizons opened by anesthesiology, allowed to use the achievements of this science in obstetrics and gynecology, dentistry, neurology, therapy, radiology , and other fields of applied medicine. This is because anesthesiology more than any other branch of medicine that focuses on ways to control the key functions of the organism. In this perspective of its development and improvement.