Local anaesthesia

Preparation of tools and solutions anaesthetics for local anesthesia: for anaesthesia mucous membranes prepared graduated the beaker, the eyedropper, clips of Mikulich, metal probes with screw thread (for anesthesia bronchi, esophagus). For infiltration and block anesthesia required syringe in capacity of 2-5 ml and 2-3 syringe 10 - 20 ml, set of needles of different thickness (0,5-1,5 mm) and length (3-15 cm), porcelain or enamel mug capacity 250-500 ml
Spinal anesthesia hold a special thin needles for lumbar puncture. They should be carefully tailored and have mandrini. Syringes, needles, needle-sterilized separately from other instruments, needles and syringes for spinal anaesthesia - separate sterilizer in distilled water or dry-air method.
Solutions anaesthetics are recommended to be prepared just before use. Novocaine pour in boiling isotonic solution of sodium chloride and boil no more than 5 minutes For the wire and branches anaesthesia is desirable to use the solution is heated to body temperature. Before the operation add adrenaline (2-5 drops of 0.1% solution of 100 ml solution novokaina, 1 drop of adrenaline, or 5% of ephedrine in 1 ml solution of cocaine or dikaina).
Preparing the patient for surgery under local anesthesia is done by the same principles as for narcosis (see). Insufficient anesthesia the patient should also be entered analgesics (morphine 1% solution of 1 ml, promedol 2% solution of 1 ml), neurologice or antihistamines (chlorpromazine 2.5% solution of 1 ml, promethazine 2.5% solution of 1 ml) under the control of a doctor and when measuring blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration.

Complications with local anesthesia

Local anesthesia isusually well tolerated. Complications may be the result of the intolerance of novocaine, injections in his blood stream or blockade sympathetic fibers (for spinal anaesthesia) and appear faint, collapse (see). At occurrence of this complication should be given to the patient lying down with lowered head end of the bed, intravenous enter the blood substitutes, tools, stimulating the cardiovascular system. When convulsions spend barbituric anesthesia, inhalation of oxygen. Prevention kollaptoidnye state serves a purpose before the operation of Nembutal or phenobarbital (luminal). Spinal anesthesia is sometimes complicated by the disorders of respiration, so in this type of anesthesia is necessary to prepare anesthesia apparatus, or the apparatus for artificial lung ventilation (see CPR). In children in the adolescent age is usually possible to hold a local anesthetic. Children in the younger age groups operations should be carried out under anaesthesia. Cm. also Anesthesia.