Aniline

Aniline (formula C6H5NH2), oily liquid with a weak odour. Easily soluble in fats, alcohol, acetone, ether; solubility in water 3,4% at temperature 20 C; temperature boiling 184,4°: little volatile. Aniline - source product to receive many of organic intermediates and dyes in the aniline-dye industry. Also used in the pharmaceutical and textile industries.
Until recently, aniline received from nitrobenzene the recovery of cast iron shavings in an acidic environment. Technological process required frequent manual cleaning devices (gearboxes) from cuttings, which often led to the poisoning. Currently developed in the USSR contact method of obtaining of aniline of nitrobenzene and hydrogen, which led to a radical improvement of labor conditions. Apply and nepreryvnolityh method of obtaining aniline restoration of nitrobenzene cast-iron scraps, where working conditions are only partially improved.
Aniline has a toxic effect: is metgemoglobinoobrazovatelami, causes degenerative changes and breakdown of red blood cells, tissue hypoxia: has a direct effect on the Central nervous system.
Acute poisoning aniline often occur as a result of pollution his skin (aniline is readily absorbed through the skin) if the execution of the works connected with cleaning and repair of vehicles and communications, with the release and discharge of aniline of barrels, sampling etc. and also by inhaling vapors hot aniline at infringements of tightness vehicles and communications, inaction or poor ventilation. Predispose to aniline poisoning drinking alcohol, high temperature and humidity of the air space, especially in summer. In acute poisoning aniline in mild cases, victims complain of weakness, dizziness, headache pain; marked blueness of the lips, ears, nail phalanxes; in the blood metgemoglobin killed Ganza. In case of poisoning of medium gravity, in addition, there are nausea, sometimes vomiting, staggering gait, cyanosis, in some cases with grey shade, liver sometimes increased and sensitive to palpation, pulse Ochsen, the reaction of pupils on light sluggish. Severe poisoning there are now extremely rare. When they are observed to the full loss of consciousness, coma, sharp bluish coloration of the skin. For chronic poisoning aniline characterized by headaches, deterioration of sleep, lethargy, fatigue, palpitations, sievetest skin, often with yellowish shade, toxic hepatitis, anemia. Carcinogenic effect aniline is not.
First aid and treatment. Acute poisoning immediately remove the victim from the source of poisoning, free from the contaminated clothing, wash the contaminated areas of the body 1-2% solution of acetic acid (hot shower and tub combination is contraindicated), designate inhaling oxygen with Carbogen, bloodletting 200 to 400 ml of blood with subsequent intravenous infusion 30-40 ml of 40% solution of glucose (contraindicated in hypotonia), heart funds on the testimony, and calm. When signs of chronic poisoning translation work that is not related to occupational hazards, symptomatic treatment.
Prevention of poisoning: go on contact method of obtaining aniline; transportation of aniline in railway tanks and send it to the consuming shops for pipelines; sealing and mechanization of processes associated with the use of aniline, effective ventilation. MAC aniline in the air of industrial premises - 3 mg/m3.
Cm. the industrial Poisons.


Aniline (synonym phenylamine;) - Aminobenzol. Almost colorless (freshly), oily liquid, quickly darkening to air and light; slightly soluble in fats, alcohol, acetone, ether; soluble in water 3,4% at 20 C; the volatility of 0.9 mg/l at 15 degrees, 5 mg/l at 40 degrees; a pair of aniline heavier than air in 2 times. Aniline is the most important source product to receive many intermediates and dyes; used in textile (chernobylova dyeing), pharmaceutical industry, etc. Is metgemoglobinoobrazovatelami, causing degenerative changes in erythrocytes and their decay; and has a direct effect on the Central nervous system. The transition of oxygenated hemoglobin into methemoglobin leads to oxygen starvation of the body.
In case of poisoning A. in the lungs cases, there are complaints of weakness, fatigue, dizziness, headache; blueness of the lips, ears, nail phalanxes; in the blood metgemoglobin killed Ganza. In case of poisoning of medium gravity, in addition, there are nausea, sometimes vomiting, staggering gait, cyanosis, in some cases with grey shade, liver sometimes increased and sensitive to palpation; pulse Ochsen, tendon reflexes increased, the reaction of the pupils sluggish. Severe cases of poisoning occur only rarely. In chronic poisoning aniline observed: toxic hepatitis, violations of the mental sphere, sleep disturbances, loss of memory, change the reaction of the pupils, bradycardia. Less common toxic anaemia with symptoms of hemolytic jaundice.
Acute poisoning A. most often occur as a result of pollution them body skin and inhalation of hot A. poisoning with aniline more in the premises with high temperature and humidity, especially in summer. Important role as a predisposing playing alcohol consumption; often the symptoms of poisoning are developing rapidly after a hot shower. Acute poisoning is most often observed in the execution of the works connected with cleaning of vehicles and communications contaminated A., in violation of their integrity, inaction or inefficient work of ventilation, with the work associated with the holiday, transporting and unloading of aniline from barrels and other
First aid at acute poisoning: immediate removal of the victim from the source of poisoning, exemption from contaminated clothing; wash affected area of skin 1-2% solution of acetic acid (hot shower and tub combination is contraindicated); inhalation of oxygen with Carbogen, bloodletting, followed by an intravenous infusion of glucose solution (contraindicated in hypotonia); heart funds on the testimony, and calm.
The fight against occupational poisoning aniline: production organization A. contact the continuous method with full sealing equipment; transportation A. in railway tanks and transfer it to the consuming shops for pipelines; sealing and mechanization of processes related to the application of A.; the exact observance of manuals, safety regulations and prom. sanitation, observance of measures of individual protection; preliminary and periodic medical examinations.