Aniline-dye industry

Aniline-dye industry is a sector of the chemical industry, which produces synthetic organic dyes. The main raw material in aniline-dye industry are aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other), the auxiliary - various acids, alkalis, salts, oxides, carbon bisulfide, ammonia, chlorine, sulfur and other
Of them through a complex chemical processing of receive nitro - and amino compounds aromatic series (nitrobenzene, nitrotoluene, nitro-naphthalene, aniline, toluidine, naphtylamine and others) and their derivatives that are going to get dyes and other substances.
Technological processes of aniline-dye industry associated with allocation in the air of industrial premises of gases, vapors and dust variety of toxic substances, as well as direct contact working with numerous group of nitro - and amino compounds aromatic series (aniline, nitroaniline, toluidine, nitro - and dinitrobenzene, nitro - and dinitrotoluene, and others), with the ability to penetrate through the intact skin and cause poisoning. Reception of alcoholic drinks usually accelerates the onset of acute poisoning, increases its severity. Contribute to the poisoning of the high temperature of the air in the room, increased humidity. The mechanism of action, symptoms of poisoning, first aid and treatment - see Aniline.
Decree of amino compounds (benzidine, beta-naphtylamine and others) have carcinogenic effects, can cause cancer of the bladder. Used acid can cause contact burns, some intermediate products and dyes (Ural, dimitroglo-benzene and other) - dermatitis, eczema.
Prevention of occupational poisonings and diseases in aniline-dye industry: rationalizing technological processes aimed at the maximum reduction of the allocation in the air of industrial premises of harmful gases, vapours, dust and elimination of direct skin contact working with hazardous substances (continuous processes, synthesis using the contact-catalytic reactions, replacement of highly toxic substances less toxic exception of substances that are carcinogenic action, and others); mechanization of production processes and ensuring the integrity of the equipment and communications; compliance with standardized meteorological conditions; providing work clothes, linen, footwear, gloves, mittens, regular change and repair them; compliance measures personal protective equipment, personal hygiene and rules of safety and industrial hygiene, compulsory taking a shower after work; preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers of hazardous professions.

Aniline-dye industry is a sector of the chemical industry, which produces synthetic organic dyes and intermediates.
The main raw material in A. p. are aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other, auxiliary, acid, alkali, salts and oxides of metals, hydrogen sulphide, chlorine, ammonia, and mn. others From this raw material by complex chemical processing of receive nitro, nitroso - and amino compounds aromatic series and their derivatives, which are for the synthesis of dyes, as well as for other products in different industries.
Technological processes of aniline-dye industry consist of successive major chemical processes, in which changes the composition of the processed material and auxiliary lies in their mechanical or thermal treatment. Chem. processes in the majority of cases occur in liquid medium. Loading machines liquids, suspensions and movement of recyclable materials in the liquid phase usually automated and takes place via pipelines. Download solid and pasty products and their movement produce until manually. In recent years meganisyou and these processes. Harmful gases and vapors may be released by the opening hatches machines for loading of solid raw materials, sampling, measurement of level, tightness of equipment and communications. Especially dangerous processes of chlorination, synthesized, generirovanie, nitration associated with the use of highly toxic products. Equipment for these processes should be installed in isolated areas and processes to automate maintenance of corridors of management and control room.
To the auxiliary processes include filtering, drying, shredding, distillation, etc. as filtering devices used nutch-filters and nutch-filters with rising beater, filter presses, drum vacuum-filters, centrifuges and other Most unfavourable sanitary condition suction filters and filter presses, which must be replaced by other devices. Important hygienic requirement is the location of the drying machines and mills in the form of integrated continuous unit in a separate room with mechanized supply of pastes in the drying machine.
Technological processes of aniline-dye industry associated with the use and receiving a variety of toxic substances, including numerous groups of amino and aromatic nitrocompounds series, with the ability to penetrate through the skin and cause poisoning, the clinical picture is similar to aniline poisoning (see).
Some amino compounds aromatic series have carcinogenic effect and cause a bladder tumors (benzidine, beta-naphtylamine, technical alpha-naphtylamine and others).
Prevention of occupational poisonings and diseases And p.: replacement of highly toxic substances less toxic, research methods for producing intermediate products and dyes, does not carcinogenic action, the study of the toxicity of newly substances and development of appropriate recommendations treatment, optimization of technological processes with the purpose of maximum decrease of allocation in the air of industrial premises of harmful substances and eliminate the possibility of their contact with skin, switch to continuous processes (including with the help of catalysts), the tightness of equipment and communications, effective ventilation, the provision of efficient work clothes, shoes, gloves, etc., observance of measures of individual protection and personal hygiene, preliminary and periodic medical examinations.