Anomalies of the kidneys and ureters

The prenatal development of kidney consists of three phases: predpochli (pronephros), primary kidney (mesonephros) and permanent kidney (metanephros).
Predpochla is formed on the 2nd week of fetal life, and soon reduced. From the remains of it is formed embryo in the form of an elongated tube, which is further converted into so-called wolf duct, and also the primary kidney. The latter soon divided into two parts, one of which is involved in the construction of the genital organs, the other on the 5th week of fetal life formed the core of a permanent kidney renal blastoma. This explains the frequent combination of anomalies of the kidneys defects of the reproductive organs.
Permanent kidney is formed from two different rudiments: parenchyma from renal blastoma (metanephrine tissue containing elements of glomeruli and convoluted tubule, and pelvis, cups and ureter is protruding from the plot volfova duct, at the confluence it in the storehouse. Gradually extended, it is the swelling becomes a rudiment of the ureter, which grows in the direction of renal blastoma and on the 7th week of fetal life grows in her anterolateral region. Before the ureter at the upper end colbourne expands and diversifies, forming the renal pelvis, cups and the collecting tubules of the kidney. Recent merging of both components buds grow together with convoluted tubules of the second order of renal blastoma.
Thus, by the end of the 2nd month of fetal life is the final connection secretory apparatus permanent kidney to the urinary ways. Kidney at this time is located in the pelvis below the bifurcation of the aorta and lying close to the middle line. In the future, kidney gradually moved up in the lumbar region. At the same time it is slightly away from the midline and rotating the first four around its vertical axis, turning lateral edge, which had grown in the pelvis, to the middle line. Promotion up and rotation kidney continue for some time after birth until the kidney will not rise to the proper level, the pelvis is not located medial and kidney parenchyma - laterally (Fig. 48).
Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters can be schematically divided into: 1) anomalies number, 2) anomalies location and 3) anomalies in the structure. Often these types of anomalies with each other.

Anomalies of the number

Anomalies provisions

Structural abnormalities