The clinical picture of anthrax

The incubation period for anthrax on average 2-3 days may vary from several hours (intestinal, pulmonary and septicemic) to 8 days. Distinguish between skin and visceral (intestinal, pulmonary forms of anthrax.

anthrax anthrax
Fig. 3 - 5. Anthrax. Fig. 3. Primary element and the carbuncle. Fig. 4. Swelling of the neck and anthrax anthrax. Fig. 5. Scab formation, roseodora redness, pimples.

When skin form in the area of the entrance gate of the pathogen occurs anthrax anthrax (Fig. 4). Appear consecutively: spot, papules, vesicles, pustules, and ulcers. Pop-spot (often open the surface of the skin and mucous membranes) quickly becomes itchy papules copper-red, slightly raised above the skin. After a few hours at the place of papules form a bubble diameter of 2-3 mm with grey content. Later it becomes dark, bloody, sometimes purple-purple. Combing patients affected areas in order to realize pustules with the gradual formation of increasing in size and quickly darkened scab. Scab up to 5-6 cm in diameter, rounded, less elongated shape, and under it - inflammatory infiltrate in the form of purple shaft, towering above the level of healthy skin. Characterized by strongly marked swelling, especially in areas rich loose under skin tissue. Sections destruction painless, which is a characteristic of a diagnostic symptom.
First, the General condition of the little disturbed. Notes malaise, fatigue, headache. By the end of the first day of the disease the body temperature can rise to 39 - 40 and keep on the high figures for 5-6 days. The General condition of the patients difficult. Sharply expressed by the General intoxication of an organism. Develop disorders cardiovascular (tachycardia). In lung metastasis may develop secondary pulmonary forms of anthrax, in critically ill sometimes anthrax meningitis, which significantly worsens the prognosis. Temperature reduction is the same as with the improvement of the General condition of the patients and reverse the development of local symptoms. Edemas decrease disappear lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. The rejection scab comes to the end of 2-3 weeks. On the place of the resulting wounds gradually formed a scar. In some cases, the patient's condition may deteriorate and develop secondary septic form. The condition of the patient heavy, blood abundance of anthrax Bacillus. Edema of the lungs, and later coma, leading to death.
When the intestinal form , along with the effects on the gastrointestinal (nausea, bloody vomiting, bloody diarrhea), accompanied by severe pains in the abdomen, very pronounced phenomena of intoxication. The high temperature, pulse Ochsen, small filling. Lung congestive wheezing. In the first days of the disease are increased liver and spleen. Patient agitated, restless, raves, often expressed euphoria. In the terminal stage may be convulsions, loss of consciousness, meningeal phenomenon. The disease through 1-6 days ends with death when events progressive weakness of the heart; it is not often found protracted course and recovery.
Primary pulmonary form. After a short incubation with symptoms of intoxication increases the feeling of tightness in the chest, there are a runny nose, coughing, watery eyes. Temperature is high (39-40 degrees), severe chills. In patients develop pneumonia, mostly bilateral, proceeding by the mechanism of lobular, in the future, with the picture of lung edema of the lungs. Auscultatory - plenty of dry and moist rales. Cough liquid frothy sputum, often mixed with blood. Death with symptoms of heart failure on 2-3rd day.
Along with secondary septic form of anthrax may be a generalization of the process without prior locally-focal manifestations of the disease. In such cases, particularly when the weak resistance of the organism and a large dose of infecta (very virulent pathogen), develops the primary septic form. Characterized by severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, usually ending in death. In the blood and cerebrospinal fluid large number of anthrax Bacillus. Allocated by some authors as an independent, meningeal form of anthrax is one of severe clinical forms.