Treatment and prevention of anthrax

The diagnosis put on the basis of clinical, epidemiological history data (profession of the patient and laboratory results.
The differential diagnosis spend with low glanders, plague, banal furuncles and carbuncles, tularemia, sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis and other
Microbiological diagnosis is made by microscopic painted drugs from native materials (content carbuncle, sputum, blood, fingerprints from tissues or organs), planting of these materials on a nutrient medium, intrusion those materials or crops, grown from their environments, laboratory animals. Is allergic diagnostic test with anthracinum. The preparation is introduced into the volume of 0.1 ml intradermally in the area of the forearm. In case of positive result after 24 hours - hyperemia (at least 3,5x3 cm) with infiltration along the edges.
Treatment. For all clinical forms of anthrax treatment should be complex. Specific funds are the main ones are: antibiotic therapy, serotherapy and chemotherapy (salvarsan). In recent years instead protivovirusnoe serum is injected protivovirusny globulin.
Of the most effective antibiotics penicillin, biomitsin, tetracycline, terramycin, streptomycin and other Daily dose of penicillin intramuscularly to 500 000 - 800 000 UNITS and more. Biomitsin appoint 0.3-0.5 g every 4 hours for 6-8 days. Terramycin apply to 3 g (single dose of 0.75 g), 4 times during the first 3 to 4 days, then 0.5 g every 6 hours, up to 16 -18 grams of the drug on the course of treatment (6-8 days). Streptomycin is administered intramuscularly in a dose of 500 000 UNITS, 2 times a day to turn in the course of the disease. Antibiotics can be combined with serotherapy. Specific protivovirusnuu serum after pre-heating up to the temperature of 35-37° impose subcutaneously or intramuscularly to Besedke (see Besedki method).
Topically for skin form of anthrax used closing bandage with ointment (boric, dermatology, zinc, Bioeconomy or tetracycline). Disorders of the cardiovascular system shows: camphor, kordiamin, caffeine, ephedrine and other Important meticulous care, especially in cases of intestinal and pulmonary forms of anthrax.
Prevention of anthrax consists of a system of veterinary-sanitary and health interventions. Timely detection, isolation of infected animals, quarantine measures, control over the disposal of dead animals, proper maintenance of burial sites, current and final disinfection (see). Immunization of animals in areas disadvantaged by anthrax. The great value has the control over performance of veterinary-sanitary rules in the procurement, processing, storage and transportation of raw materials. A strict control over the hygiene shepherds, Hurtopravtsi, slaughterhouse workers, enterprises on processing of sheep skin, skin and other animal raw materials (clothes, wearing a dust mask and gloves when handling raw materials, suspicious for infection, hand washing with soap, and so on).
Patient anthrax people urgently hospitalized in the separate room provides an individual utensils and items of care. Personnel should respect the personal prevention measures. To clarify the sources and causes infection of the patient in the hearth of the Siberian ulcer is conducted epidemiologic study to the study of suspicious materials on the reaction of Ascoli (see Ascoli reaction).
Persons who come into contact with sick anthrax animals, raw materials and products, as well as caring for the sick, from prevention to give protivovirusny globulin.
Prophylactic vaccination against anthrax carried out in a planned manner and taking into account the epidemic situation. For vaccination of animals and humans live vaccine is used STI. It has high efficiency and harmlessness. The vaccine should be stored in a dark place at temperature 0 - 4oC. Shelf life 2 years. Vaccinations produce once cutaneous through skalpirovaniya skin or subcutaneously. The booster produce in a year.