Anthropometry

Anthropometry is one of the main methods of morphological (individual and group) characteristics. Use the measurement and descriptive characteristics. Measuring call signs, which can be expressed in numbers; descriptive - received by the survey, by comparison with the various standards (tables and models). Anthropometry is widely used in medicine, mainly in the study of physical development of a person, which is the measure of the impact of socio-economic, sanitary, and other factors. At a minimum program anthropometric surveys measure growth, weight and chest circumference, give a description of the development of muscles and subcutaneous fat; a more detailed - produce advanced a number of dimensions of the skull (craniometry), extremities, individual segments of the body and other Anthropometry and includes functional indicators: definition muscle strength brush (dinamometre)and lung (spirometry). Depending on the objects and purposes of the study anthropometry divided into clinical, school, kindergarten, military, professional and other Anthropometry is made by call to the military service, in the selection of astronauts, in sports medicine,in evaluating stay at the resorts, rest homes etc., a Special type of anthropometry measurements are pelvis using tanamera in obstetric practice. The great value has anthropometry in criminology and forensic medicine. In recent years, anthropometry has found application in a number of industries in connection with the problem of standardization sizes articles of personal and collective use - shoes, clothes, school furniture and other
All measurements are carried out on naked body, recording the linear dimensions are given in millimeters, weighing - in kilograms. The measurements were carried out at the same time, usually in the morning; weight establish before a meal. The necessary prerequisites correct anthropometric studies - unified methodology and technique, accurate anthropometric tools and special qualification of nurses.

anthropometric points Fig. 1. Anthropometric points:
1 - point the top of the head;
2 - hair;
3 - frontal;
4 - verkhnesadovoe;
5 - neznanova;
6 - chin;
7 - neck;
8 - verchagina;
9 - shoulder;
10 - srednegodnaia;
11 - Nizhnegorodskaya;
12 - radiation;
13 - the umbilical;
14 - Grebeshkova;
15 - statopedia;
16 - pubic;
17 - vertelney;
18 - subulate;
19 joint;
20 finger;
21 - verhneportovaya;
22 - nizhneportovaya;
23 - final;
24 - heel point.

Fig. 2. Measurement of growth.
Tatomir and inclinometer
Fig. 3. Tatomir. Fig. 4. Goniometer.
compass Gamburtseva
Fig. 5. Combined compass Gamburtseva: 1 - goniometer; 2 - a plumb; 3 - top sponge; 4 - bottom (mobile) sponge; 5 - top leg; 6 - the lower leg; 7 - flat rod.

A large part of linear measurements carried out from a strictly limited parts - points (Fig. 1)well apparently on bone formations through the soft tissue or body surface (the navel, nipples). Growth is measured by anthropometry (Fig. 2), or by stadiometer, standing or sitting. Wide projection sizes and front-back dimensions body set is stout compass, ilitation (Fig. 3). Longitudinal diameter of the chest and dimensions that characterize the corners (for example, the tilt of the pelvis, sternum, bends of a backbone and some others), obtained by kombinirovannogo Gamburtseva (Fig. 5) and additional goniometer of Mollison. Chest circumference is measured measuring tape, held back under the lower angle of the scapula, and on the front - bottom nipple in men and under the breast in women. The corners of motion in the joints define a protractor with hinge (Fig. 4 and 6).


Fig. 6. Angles that determine the joint motion of the lower limb.

The body weight is established on medical balances, the volume and the weight of the body is calculated by the volume of the displaced water. The power of the brush is defined carpal the load cell in position of the test and standing at a light abstraction hands. To determine the color of the eyes , there are several scales. The most famous scale Martin, environmental coloring eyes to 16 different colors. There are several forms of breast cells: flat, cylindrical, conical and mixed; the belly is straight, hollow and round (Fig. 7), the degree of development of subcutaneous fat, weak, moderate and strong. The degree of muscle development study on the power of individual muscle groups. The growth of hair in the armpits, in the pubic area and the girls breast development allow to determine the degree of puberty.

the shape of the chest and abdomen
Fig. 7. The shape of the chest and abdomen: 1 - flat chest and sunken belly; 2 - cylindrical chest and direct stomach; 3 - conical chest and rounded belly.


Anthropometry (from the Greek. anthropos - human and metreo " measure") is one of the major methods for studying the morphological features (individual and group) of a person. Anthropometry is divided into actually anthropometry, studying and measuring the characteristics and antroposophy associated with descriptive characteristics. Used initially only in anthropology, anthropometry was used in several other fields, including medicine, mainly in connection with the issues of the doctrine of physical development of a person, its Constitution and other
Measuring characteristics in most cases, dedicated to the size, boundaries of which are the so-called anthropometric points, localized primarily on bone formations - processes, tabs, and so on, in varying degrees, apparently through the soft tissue (Fig. 1). To these points, in particular, include: the apical point (vertex) - the most protruding upwards plot crown at the head position in the so-called ophthalmic-ear horizontal, in which the right and left kozelkova point (see below) and the bottom edge of the left eye is on the same level; kozelkova point (tragion) - the intersection of the lines drawn through the front and top of the tragus of the ear; nadgradnja point (supra-sternale) - the deepest part of the jugular notch sternum; the iliac-awned front point (ilio-spinale anterius) - top-the front part of the spine of the Ilium; pubic point (symphysion) - the middle of the top edge of the pubic Union; inguinal point (inguinion - an imaginary point in the groin, on the half of the distance between the iliac-awned and pubic points; the iliac-Grebeshkova point (ilio-cristale) is the most protruding outwards point of the ridge of the iliac bone, shoulders point (acromion) - protruding outwards plot Akromiylar process of the scapula; finger point (daktylion) - the end of the third finger.
There are dimensions: line, arc, angle, etc. All of them are measured on a naked body; two-way - on the right side of the body. The linear sizes are divided into direct and projection. The latter have greater application, they represent a cross-cutting dimensions directed perpendicular to one of the planes of the body. The size of the vertical stretch called heights (or length), the transverse - widths or diameters); diameters are called anteroposterior and sizes. The size of the vertical stretch include: body length (height), legs, hands and other
Body length is measured metal anthropometry system of Martin or wooden stadiometer (Fig. 2). The measurement is made from the upper point. Anthropometry are measured and many other high-rise dimensions - length of body, body, arms, legs, and others; almost all of them are determined by the difference of heights above the floor of the corresponding points. Thus, the body length is determined by the difference of heights above the floor nagradnoj and pubic points, the length of the body - apical and inguinal points; the latter is from the floor at a distance equal to the half-sum of the distances from the floor iliac-awned and pubic points. Leg length is determined from the inguinal point to the floor; the length of the arm to the difference between the heights above the floor shoulder and finger points. Cross anteroposterior and sizes are small (head and face) or large (width of shoulders, pelvis) is stout-compasses (Fig. 3, 1). Shoulder width is measured between the shoulder pixels, the width of the pelvis between the iliac-Grebeshkova points. Linear direct dimensions do not depend on the orientation of the body and represents the shortest distance between points on them.

Fig. 2. Wooden stadiometer.
Fig. 3. Small is stout (1) and sliding (2) compasses put on them by goniometry of Mollison.
Fig. 4. Angles that determine the joint motion of the lower limbs; bottom right - goniometer with a hinge.
Fig. 5. Schematic view of the device to determine the extent of the body: 1 - upward and 2 - descendant of the tribe of the stairs; 3 - slot; 4 - plums; 5 - a vessel for the fluid displaced by the body investigated; 6 - scales.
Fig. 6. Schedule Dubois to determine the surface of the body.
Fig. 7. Model of the eye (the upper eyelid, nose, lips and ears.
Fig. 8. The shape of the chest and abdomen (1-3) and the form back (4-in): 1 - flat chest and sunken belly; 2 - cylindrical chest and direct stomach; 3 - conical chest and kruglosutochnyy belly; 4 - straight back; 5 - plain back; 6 - slouching back.
Fig. 9. Irouleguy: 1 - weak; 2 - moderate; 3 - rich.
Fig. 10. The degree of muscle development: 1 - weak; 2 - medium; 3 - strong.

Measurement of some dimensions of the face and head are typically produced sliding compass (Fig. 3, 2).
Arc sizes include a circle, or the girths, and their derivatives-arc. Measurement is made by metal tapes. These dimensions include the girths of the head, the chest, shoulder and other chest Girth is measured at the rear, under the blade, front - in the lower section of the areola (men) or level IV rib (women). The measurement is made during quiet breathing, sometimes with a maximum inhale and exhale. The girth of the shoulder is measured at the largest development biceps muscle in a calm her condition and intense.
Angular dimensions define the position of individual body parts relative to each other (dimensions that define motion in the joints; Fig. 4) or relative to the horizontal and vertical axes of the body (the tilt of the pelvis, spine curves and others). Measured in degrees special devices: goniometer with hinge, the goniometer of Mollison (Fig. 3).
The other available sizes are: absolute and relative weight of the body, its surface, etc. of the Absolute weight of the body is determined by conventional medical scales, specific weight of different ways, in particular the following: 1) the volume of the fluid displaced by the body; the proportion is determined by the formula:
d=P/V
where d is the specific weight of the body, M is the weight of the body, V - volume of the displaced water. The volume of the displaced water is measured, weighed her after she drained from the vessel sank investigated (Fig. 5)or using voluminoser consisting of a vessel, which is immersed in the study, and communicating with him graduated glass tube; 2) hydrostatic method; determine the weight of a body submerged into water; the weight of the body is found by the formula:
The surface of the body is determined by a special formula, of which the most common formula Dubois: S = 71,84·R0,425·L0,725,
where S is the surface of the body, M weight, L is the length of the body. To facilitate the finding of the body surface Dubois was a special schedule (Fig. 6): through the point of intersection of the various units of length and weight of the body lines at the ends of which set of numbers (m2), corresponding to the values of the surface of the body for these values of length and weight.
Descriptive (antropologicheskii) are those characteristics, structural and other characteristics of which, though obvious, but the direct measurement is not difficult: the shape of the hair, the soft parts of the face (nose, eyelids, lips and others), eye color, hair, skin, the shape of the chest, abdomen and other Descriptive characteristics are determined visually by comparing them with special models (Fig. 7), scales (eye color, hair, skin) or referring to the most common options that are measured at 3 - or 5-point system (Fig. 8 - 10). To illustrate features of the descriptive characteristics apply special anthropological photography.
The task of the anthropometry includes research and some visimetrics signs - lung capacity, excursions chest, the strength of individual muscle groups and other Vital capacity is determined by spirometry different systems; tour of the chest - the difference between the girths of the chest at a maximum inhaling and exhaling; the power of individual muscle groups - various dynamometers.
Key to the development of the data A. serves variational statistics (see).